- freely available
Molecules 2012, 17(9), 10178-10191; doi:10.3390/molecules170910178
Published: 24 August 2012
Abstract: Symmetric and non-symmetric 2-(N-H, N-methyl, N-ethylenyl and N-aryl)guanidinebenzothiazoles were synthesized from the reaction of ammonia, methylamine, pyrrolidine and aniline with dimethyl benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl-carbono-dithioimidate (5) as intermediate. The products were characterized by 1H-, 13C-NMR spectroscopy and three of them by X-ray diffraction analysis. HN-phenyl protons formed intramolecular hydrogen bonds that assist the stereochemistry of the second substituent, whereas the HN-alkyl protons were involved in intermolecular hydrogen bonding.
The guanidine group has attracted considerable attention since it is found in a wide array of natural and synthetic biologically active compounds [1,2,3]. The guanidine groups are categorized as organosuperbases whose basicity is magnified because of the resonance stabilization of the corresponding conjugated acids. These molecules are basic enough (pKa of their conjugated acids is around 12.5) to form intermolecular contacts mediated by H-bonding interactions . Its positive charge, resulting from protonation in a wide range of pH values, plays an important role in forming specific intermolecular interactions, comprising key-steps of many biological reactions including enzyme-mediated processes and interaction of hormones with their receptors . The guanidinium moiety interacts with functional groups present in enzymes or receptors on the basis of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions to form intermolecular associations. Thus, they are useful pharmacophores in medicinal chemistry . Moreover, synthetic guanidines have found wide applications in the engineering of advanced synthetic molecular recognition devices, sensors, organic materials and phase-transfer catalysts [7,8]. Recently, it has been demonstrated that by introduction of chirality in one of the guanidinyl nitrogen atoms [9,10,11], the resulting chiral guanidines were effective in catalytic [12,13,14,15] and stoichiometric asymmetric synthesis [16,17]. Due to this, continued interest has been shown in the transformation of amines into the corresponding guanidines, because the guanidine group, instead of an existing amino group, can significantly increase the potency and/or selectivity of biologically active compounds [18,19,20].
Typically, the synthesis of guanidine-containing compounds involves the treatment of an amine with an electrophilic amidine species. The most commonly used reagents include cyanamide (1) , O-methylisourea hydrogen sulfate (2a) , S-methyl isothiouronium salts (2b) [23,24,25], pyrazole-1-carboxamidine (2c) , N-protected thiourea (3a) [27,28,29], (S-methyl or -aryl)isothiourea (3b) [30,31,32,33] or pyrazole-1-carboxamidine (3c) derivatives [34,35] (Figure 1). To increase yields, new reagents with electron-withdrawing substituents have been developed in the recent years [36,37].
The synthesis of guanidines from thioureas and isothioureas are the most commons strategies used for the construction of the guanidine functionality. In the case of thioureas, they are activated through the reaction with DIC, EDCI, Hg2+ (most popular but toxic), 2-chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene, etc. Recently, a bismuth catalyst has been found to afford high yields (70%–97%) . The attachment of thiourea groups to a solid phase has been used as precursor of guanidinium groups . Recently, it has been demonstrated that guanylilation of an amine from a thiourea, involves the attack of the amine on what is generally accepted to be a carbodiimide intermediate [40,41,42,43,44,45,46].
Diphenylcarbodiimide has been used for the synthesis of diphenylguanidinobenzothiazole  and dicyandiamide for the synthesis of 2-guanidinobenzothiazole . However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no reports about non-symmetrical guanidines derived from 2-aminobenzothiazole.
We have reported  a detailed study and characterization of the intermediates involved in the synthesis of dimethyl benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylcarbonodithioimidate (5), from the reaction of 2-aminobenzothiazole (4) with carbon disulfide in basic media, using DMF as solvent . Two molecules of HSMe are displaced when 5 reacts with o-XH substituted anilines in refluxing DMF to get NH-bisbenzazoles 7 [51,52,53] (Scheme 1). We found that the reaction proceeds through the intermediacy of isothiourea derivatives 6a–c when o-XH anilines are refluxed 16 h in ethanol. Under these conditions, isothiourea 6c could be isolated and the reaction was extended to m- and p-phenylenediamines . In the same work, we reported the synthesis of S-methyl-N-alkylbenzothiazolyl-isothioureas 8a–d when ammonia, methylamine, pyrrolidine, aniline and 1,4-piperazine were used (Scheme 2).
In continuation of this work, we were interested in extending the routes of synthesis of guanidine compounds, in this sense, we generalized this reaction to prepare symmetrical 10g,h,j and nonsymmetrical 10b–f,i guanidine derivatives obtained from 2-aminobenzothiazole (4, Scheme 2). Herein we report the preparation and 1H and 13C-NMR structural study of a series of guanidines 10b–j. The isolation of S-methylisothiourea intermediates 8 is important since their remaining reactive S-methyl group was subsequently substituted by amines to form the guanidine group.
2. Results and Discussion
When dithiocarboimidate 5 reacts with one molar equivalent of ammonia, alkylamine or aniline in ethanol, one molar equivalent of thiomethanol was evolved to afford the corresponding S-methylbenzothiazolyl-isothiourea 8a–d as isolable intermediates (Scheme 2). Ammonia required 72 h and alkylamine 48 h on stirring at room temperature, to be completed, whereas aniline required 24 h in refluxing ethanol.
The reaction of isothiourea intermediates 8a–d with a second equivalent of several amines (ammonia, methylamine, aniline and pyrrolidine) was then carried out. When the reaction of isothiourea intermediate 8a was performed with excess ammonia in refluxing ethanol, 2-cyanamido-benzothiazole 9a crystallized as the only product in a 62% yield. The X-ray diffraction structure of 9a is shown in Figure 2, along with a summary of representative distances and angles. The N12-C11 bond length is the shortest N–C bond, its value of 1.155(3) Å is in the characteristic range of a triple bond , confirming the presence of the cyano group. In addition, N10-C11 [1.337(3) Å] and N3-C2 [1.338(3) Å] are in agreement with a single bond whereas the shorter N10-C2 [1.311(3) Å] bond length is more appropriate for a double bond character. On the other hand, the X-ray diffraction structure of 9a shows that the mobile hydrogen atom prefers to stay on the benzothiazole nitrogen because of two intermolecular interactions, N3-H3∙∙∙N10, stabilize the molecule as a dimer [H3∙∙∙N10 = 2.01 Å, N3∙∙∙N10 = 2.866(2) Å, N3-H3∙∙∙N10 = 174°; symmetry code: –x, −y, 1−z]. In this arrangement, the nitrile group is cis positioned to the sulfur atom, thus the electronic conjugation is extended from the benzothiazole system to the nitrile group. The torsion angles S1-C2-N10-C11 [−1.0°(3)] and C11-N10-C2-N3 [178.3°(2)] are in agreement with a planar molecule. The nitrile is a polarized functional group whose interaction with sulfur atom, as Lewis acid, is favored by cis configuration [N12∙∙∙S1 = 3.160(3) Å] and C7-H7∙∙∙N12 interaction [H7∙∙∙N12 = 2.677 Å, C7-N12 = 3.343(4) Å, C7-H7∙∙∙N12 = 138°; symmetry code: 1−x, 1−y, 1−z].
Compound 9a is formed when S-methylisothiourea 8a suffers HSMe group elimination promoted by the basic media (Scheme 3). The proposed mechanistic pathway involves the participation of NH4OH to remove one NH hydrogen atom from 8a to in situ form the ammonium intermediate I, which is stabilized as the tautomer intermediate II. A second molecule of NH4OH promotes the elimination of the HSMe group to generate the nitrile 9a. The intermediate II was transformed to 8-NMe, (δ = 3.80 NMe, 2.66 SMe) by reaction with one molar equivalent of NaOH and CH3I, which is readily transformed into 2-cyanamide-N-methylbenzothiazole compound 9b by a second molar equivalent of NaOH (Scheme 3).
Compound 9a was characterized in solution by NMR. The nitrile carbon atom appears as a small signal at 117.7 ppm, very similar to the observed value of 118.7 ppm in benzonitrile . The mass spectrometry [M+ = 175 m/z (100%)] and elemental analysis, are in agreement with the proposed structure. Under the same conditions already described for 8a, isothioureas 8b and 8c failed to react with an excess of ammonia to give nonsymmetrical guanidines 10b and 10c respectively, and the starting materials were recovered, however, the reaction of isothiourea 8d with an excess of ammonia, affords the nonsymmetrical guanidine 10d as the only product. In this case, the acidic aniline hydrogen is intramolecularly engaged with the benzothiazole nitrogen atom. This hydrogen bonding interaction is strong enough to polarize the imine carbon and favors the substitution of the SMe group by ammonia.
On the basis of this result, the reaction of isothiourea 8a with methylamine and pyrrolidine were carried out to get nonsymmetrical guanidines 10b and 10c, after refluxing in ethanol for 4 and 2 days, respectively. The reaction of 8a with aniline failed to give the corresponding guanidine compound 10d, even after 4 days in refluxing ethanol. Under these conditions, aniline is not nucleophilic enough to add to the carbodiimide intermediate II. The reaction of isothiourea 8b or 8c with one molar equivalent of methylamine or pyrrolidine in refluxing ethanol for 8 h afforded the corresponding guanidines 10h,i or guanidines 10i,j, respectively. Symmetric guanidines 10h,j can also be obtained when dithiocarboimidate 5 is reacted with two molar equivalents of the corresponding amine in refluxing ethanol for 8 h.
The reaction of isothiourea 8d with one molar equivalent of methylamine, pyrrolidine and aniline was tested. After 3 days in refluxing ethanol, the corresponding nonsymmetrical guanidines 10e and 10f, were obtained. The reaction with aniline required harsh conditions: refluxing DMF or solventless heating. In the 1H-NMR spectrum of 10g, only aromatic protons and a broad signal at 12.4 ppm, assigned to the N-H protons, were observed. Moreover, sixteen signals in the 13C-NMR spectrum are indicative of the presence of the 2-N,N-diphenyl guanidinebenzothiazole 10g (Table 1 and Table 2). The mass spectrometry data [M+ = 344 m/z (19%)] is in agreement with the proposed structure.
|Table 1. 1H-NMR chemical shifts of compounds 9a–b, 10b–j.|
a DMSO-d6; b CDCl3。
|Table 2. 13C-NMR chemical shift of compounds 9a–b, 10b–j, in DMSO-d6.|
|10db||156.0||125.7||122.7||122.1||119.6||131.3||151.8||173.7||136.8, 130.2, 125.7, 127.0|
|10eb||154.6||125.6||122.5||121.2||119.5||131.7||151.9||174.5||28.6||137.0, 130.2, 126.9, 126.0|
|10fb||154.4||125.6||122.4||121.1||119.6||132.0||151.9||173.8||139.9, 129.5, 125.6, 123.3|
|10ga||151.5||125.8||121.5||121.3||119.9||132.0||151.0||173.6||137.3, 129.8, 123.6, 123.0|
N(CH2CH2): 46.9, 25.5 (10c); 49.3, 25.6 (10f); 49.2, 25.7 (10i); 49.6, 25.6 (10j). a DMSO-d6; b CDCl3。
Comparison of 13C-NMR chemical shifts of guanidine compounds 10 to those of dimethyl benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylcarbonodithioimidate 5, shows that C2 and C11 are shifted to low frequencies by approximately 10 and 2 ppm, respectively (Table 2). This effect is explained by the extended conjugation of N12 and N13 electron pairs to the benzothiazole ring, increasing the electronic protection of C2 atom. This effect also shifts C7 and C8 to low frequencies by 6 and 3 ppm, respectively. In contrast, C2 is shifted by 6.5 ppm to higher frequencies in 2-aminonitrilebenzothiazole 9a.
Nonsymmetrical guanidines 10f and 10i were crystallized from ethanol; their molecular structures are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, respectively. The aniline N-H proton in 10f is intramolecularly bridged with benzothiazole nitrogen [H17∙∙∙N3 = 2.13 Å, N17∙∙∙N3 = 2.697(3) Å, N17-H17∙∙∙N3 = 123°], forcing the guanidine group to be in the same plane of the benzothiazole ring [N17-C11-N10-C2 = −1.7(3)°] and [N12-C11-N10-C2 = −179.62(17°)]. In addition, two phenyl hydrogen atoms make intermolecular CH∙∙∙π contacts: H19 with guanidine carbon atom [H19∙∙∙C11 = 2.792 Å, C19∙∙∙C11 = 3.684(3) Å, C19-H19∙∙∙C11 = 160.9°; symmetry code: 1−x, −y, 1−z], and H20 with the π electrons of the benzothiazole aromatic ring [H20∙∙∙π = 3.130 Å, C20∙∙∙π = 3.898(3) Å, C20-H20∙∙∙π = 141.2°, symmetry code: 1−x, −1/2+y, 1/2−z].
Moreover, in the case of guanidine 10i, derived from two alkylamines, the conformation is not fixed by intramolecular hydrogen bonding as in 10f, the methylamine N-H proton is intermolecularly hydrogen bonded with benzothiazole nitrogen of a second molecule and so on to get an helix-like polymer [H17∙∙∙N23 = 2.16Å, N17∙∙∙N23 = 2.973(6), N17-H17∙∙∙N23 =158°; symmetry code: x, y ,z and H37∙∙∙O3 = 2.19 Å, N37∙∙∙O3 = 2.997(7) Å, N37-H37∙∙∙O3 =157°; symmetry code: x, 1−y, z], this forces the plane of the guanidine system approximately 35° out of the benzothiazole mean plane [N17-C11-N10-C2 = −144.6(6)°, N12-C11-N10-C2 = 39.2 (9)°] in agreement with the steric demand of the pyrrolidine moiety.
The proton NMR chemical shift of the NH protons of compounds 10f and 10i are in 11.5 and 8.9 ppm respectively. These results show that aniline N-H hydrogen atom of guanidine 10f is involved in hydrogen bonding in solution whereas the NH of 10i is not. This result is explained because of, in the case of compound 10f, the electron pairs of the aniline nitrogen atom are conjugated with the aromatic ring making the NH more acid and thus able for hydrogen bonding. The same effect is observed in the 1H-NMR spectra of the series of non-symmetric guanidines based on aniline derivatives. The NH protons are in 11.2 for 10e, 11.6 for 10f and 12.4 for 10g. This intramolecular interaction, make the benzothiazole ring and the guanidine system to be in the same plane, increasing the electronic protection on C2 atom and, shifting the corresponding 13C-NMR signals by approximately 3 ppm to lower frequencies, in comparison with guanidines without this group, Table 2.
3.1. General Procedures
Melting points were measured on an Electrothermal IA apparatus and are uncorrected. IR spectra were recorded in a film on ZnSe using a Perkin-Elmer 16F PC IR spectrophotometer. 1H and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian Mercury 300 MHz (1H, 300.08; 13C, 75.46 MHz). The spectra were measured with tetramethylsilane as internal reference following standard techniques. Physicochemical data is listed in Table 3. Crystallographic data (excluding structure factors) for the structures in this paper have been deposited in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre as supplementary publication numbers CCDC 10f (820770), 10i (820769), and 9a (820768). A summary of collection and refinement X-ray data are listed in Table 4. For this compound, H atoms were treated as riding atoms, with C–H distances in the range of 0.93–0.96 Å and N-H distances of 0.82 Å. X-ray diffraction cell refinement and data collection: BRUKER SMART APEX Diffractometer and SAINT , programs used to solve structures: SHELXS-97 , software used to prepare material for publication: PLATON  and WinGX . 2-Aminobenzothiazole 4 was a commercial product. Dimethyl benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylcarbonodithioimidate 5 was prepared according to a literature procedure .
|Table 3. Complementary data of the starting materials 4, 5, 9a and guanidines 10b–j.|
|Comp.||Yield (%)||Physical appearance||M.p. (°C)||υ (cm−1)||m/z (%M+)||Elemental analysis Found (calculated)|
|5||82||Yellow powder||72–73||509, 1464||254(20)||47.05(47.24)||3.95(3.94)||11.13(11.02)|
|9a||62||Colorless crystals||198–199||2186, 1600, 1580||175(100)||54.02(54.85)||3.03(2.85)||23.73(24.00)|
|10b||88||White powder||158–160||3406, 3260, 1624||206(100)||52.14(52.42)||4.88(4.85)||27.20(27.18)|
|10c||92||White powder||242–244||3395, 3161, 1609, 1547||246(100)||58.13(58.53)||5.71(5.69)||22.40(22.76)|
|10d||76||White powder||148–150||3436, 3198, 1613, 1568||57.42(62.68)||4.57(4.48)||19.05(20.89)|
|10e||89||White powder||145–147||3418, 3200, 1597, 1560||63.14(63.83)||4.98(4.96)||19.95(19.86)|
|10f||90||Colorless crystals||184–186||3395, 3161, 1609, 1547||66.99(67.08)||5.70(5.59)||17.72(17.39)|
|10g||60||White powder||127–129||3400, 1613, 1580||344(19)||68.19(69.76)||4.72(4.65)||16.17(16.28)|
|10h||90||Brownish liquid||1602, 1574||220(100)||54.80(54.54)||5.49(5.45)||24.24(25.45)|
|10i||92||Colorless crystals||136–137||3210, 3080, 1588, 1524||59.63(60.0)||6.24(6.15)||21.71(21.54)|
|Table 4. .X-ray crystal data of compounds 10g, 10i and 9a.|
|Unit cell information|
|Cell axes [Å]a||11.3477||14.3400||5.6230|
|Cell angles [deg]α||90.000||90.000||90.000|
|Space group||P 2l/c||P na2l||P 2l/c|
|Density [g cm−1]||1.29||1.28||1.46|
|No. Form. Units Z||4||4||4|
|Delta-rho[eÅ−3]max, min||0.242, −0.280||0.922, −0.272||0.274, −0.283|
|R_all, R_obs||0.054, 0.049||0.102, 0.073||0.054, 0.049|
|wR2_all, wR2_aobs||0.125, 0.121||0.189, 0.166||0.127, 0.116|
3.2. General Procedure to Get Isothiourea Intermediates 8
In a 100 mL flask, dimethyl benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylcarbonodithioimidate 5 (1.0 g, 3.94 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (10 mL), three molar equivalents of ammonia, or one molar equivalent of the respective aliphatic or aromatic amine were added and the mixture was stirred for 72 h, in the case of ammonia, 48 h in the case of alkylamine or pyrrolidine and 24 h in refluxing in the case of aniline to get the corresponding isothiourea compounds.
3.3. General Procedure to Obtain Guanidines 10
In a 100 mL flask, isothiourea compound 5 (1.0 g, 3.94 mmol) was dissolved in ethanol (10 mL) with one molar equivalent of the corresponding amine and refluxed for 16 h to get guanidines 10b–e,g–j or from carboimidate 5 with 2 molar equivalents of the amine in refluxing ethanol for 16 h, in the case of alkylamines, or refluxing DMF, in the case of aniline, to get the corresponding guanidine compounds 10h,j. The solvent was eliminated by evaporation; the resulting solid was washed with cold ethanol, ketone or chloroform, then dissolved in ethanol and after precipitation or crystallization, filtered and air dried to give a white solid.
We have demonstrated the preparation of symmetric and non-symmetric guanidines from the reaction of dimethyl benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylcarbonodithioimidate (5) and primary or secondary amines in refluxing ethanol, through the displacement of two molecules of HSMe. The reaction proceeds through isothiourea intermediates which, in strongly basic media, are transformed in (Z)-2-cyanamidabenzothiazoles. Alkylamines are nucleophilic enough to easily perform both substitutions leading to guanidines, whereas the second substitution with aniline requires harsh conditions. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the NH of the aniline group and benzothiazole nitrogen in S-methylisothiourea 8d, leads to a cis-disposition between them and thus controlling the stereochemistry of the second substitution. The NH of alkylamines is not acidic enough to form intramolecular hydrogen bonding and intermolecular interactions are found instead. In any case the preferred rotamer observed in the solid state is trans to the sulfur atom of benzothiazole ring.
A. Cruz thanks CONACYT Grant 52351 and Secretaría de Investigación y Posgrado del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (SIP-IPN), Grant 20070101 for financial support.
- Lednicer, D.; Mitscher, L.A. The Organic Chemistry of Drugs Synthesis; Wiley: New York, NY, USA, 1980; Volume II. [Google Scholar]
- Mori, A.; Cohen, B.D.; Lowenthal, A. Historical, Biological, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of the Naturally Occurring Guanidino Compounds; Plenium: New York, NY, USA, 1985. [Google Scholar]
- Berlinck, R.G.S. Some aspects of guanidine secondary metabolites. Fortschr. Chem. Org. Naturst. 1995, 66, 119–295. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Burgess, K. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis; John Wiley Sons: New York, NY, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Xian, M.; Li, X.; Tang, X.; Chen, X.; Zheng, Z.; Galligan, J.J.; Kreulen, D.L.; Wang, P.G. N-Hydroxyl derivatives of guanidine based drugs as enzymatic NO donors. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2001, 11, 2377–2380. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Durant, G.J. Guanidine derivatives acting at histaminergic receptors. Chem Soc. Rev. 1985, 14, 375–398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Echavarren, A.; Galan, A.; Lehn, J.M.; De Mendoza, J. Chiral recognition of aromatic carboxylate anions by an optically active abiotic receptor containing a rigid guanidinium binding subunit. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 4994–4995. [Google Scholar]
- Simoni, D.; Invidiata, F.P.; Manfredini, S.; Ferroni, R.; Lampronti, I.; Roberti, M.; Pollini, G.P. Facile synthesis of 2-nitroalkanols by tetramethylguanidine (TMG)-catalyzed addition of primary nitroalkanes to aldehydes and alicyclic ketones. Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 2749–2752. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Isobe, T.; Fukuda, K.; Ishikawa, T. Modified guanidines as potential chiral superbases. 1. Preparation of 1,3-disubstituted 2-iminoimidazolidines and the related guanidines through chloroamidine derivatives. J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 7770–7773. [Google Scholar]
- Isobe, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tokunaga, T.; Seki, H.; Yamaguchi, K.; Ishikawa, T. Modified guanidines as potential chiral superbases. 2. Preparation of 1,3-unsubstituted and 1-substituted 2-iminoimidazolidine derivatives and a related guanidine by the 2-chloro-1,3-dimethyl-imidazolinium chloride-induced cyclization of thioureas. J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 7774–7778. [Google Scholar]
- Isobe, T.; Fukuda, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Seki, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Ishikawa, T. Modified guanidines as potential chiral superbases. 3. Preparation of 1,4,6-triazabicyclooctene systems and 1,4-disubstituted 2-iminoimidazolidines by the 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium chloride-induced cyclization of guanidines with a hydroxyethyl substituent. J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 7779–7785. [Google Scholar]
- Ryoda, A.; Yajima, N.; Haga, T.; Kumamoto, T.; Nakanishi, W.; Kawahata, M.; Yamaguchi, K.; Ishikawa, T. Optical resolution of (±)-1,2-bis(2-methylphenyl)ethylene-1,2-diamine as a chiral framework for 2-iminoimidazolidine with 2-methylphenyl pendant and the guanidine-catalyzed asymmetric Michael reaction of tert-butyl diphenyliminoacetate and ethyl acrylate. J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 133–141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saito, N.; Ryoda, A.; Nakanishi, W.; Kumamoto, T.; Ishikawa, T. Guanidine-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of 2,2-disubstituted chromane skeletons by intramolecular oxa-Michael addition. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2008, 2759–2766. [Google Scholar]
- Zhang, G.; Kumamoto, T.; Heima, T.; Ishikawa, T. Access to the nicotine system by application of a guanidine-catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition of diphenyliminoacetate with 3-pyridyl vinyl ketone. Tetrahedron Lett. 2010, 51, 3927–3930. [Google Scholar]
- Thai, K.; Gravel, M. Design, synthesis, and application of chiral electron-poor guanidines as hydrogen-bonding catalysts for the Michael reaction. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 2010, 21, 751–755. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Isobe, T.; Fukuda, K.; Araki, Y.; Ishikawa, T. Modified guanidines as chiral superbases: The first example of asymmetric silylation of secondary alcohols. Chem. Commun. 2001, 243–244. [Google Scholar]
- Tang, Y.; Li, X.; Lian, C.; Zhu, J.; Deng, J. Synthesis of a water-soluble cationic chiral diamine ligand bearing a diguanidinium and application in asymmetric transfer hydrogenation. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 2011, 22, 1530–1535. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Baker, T.J.; Luedke, N.W.; Tor, Y.; Goodman, M. Synthesis and Anti-HIV Activity of guanidinoglycosides. J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 9054–9058. [Google Scholar]
- Hui, Y.; Ptak, R.; Pallansch, M.; Chang, C.-W.W. Synthesis of novel guanidine incorporated aminoglycosides, guanidinopyranmycins. Tetrahedron Lett. 2002, 43, 9255–9257. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Izdebski, J.; Witkowska, E.; Kunce, D.; Orlowska, A.; Baranowska, B.; Radzikowska, M.; Smoluch, M. New potent hGH-RH analogues with increased resistance to enzymatic degradation. J. Peptide Sci. 2002, 8, 289–296. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schow, S. Cyanamide. In Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis; Paquette, L.A., Ed.; Wiley: Sussex, UK, 1995; pp. 1408–1410. [Google Scholar]
- Palmer, D.C. O-Methylisourea. In Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis; Paquette, L.A., Ed.; Wiley: Sussex, UK, 1995; pp. 3525–3526. [Google Scholar]
- Bergeron, R.J.; Mcmanis, J.S. Total synthesis of (±)-15-deoxyspergualin. J. Org. Chem. 1987, 52, 1700–1703. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dumas, D.J. Total synthesis of peramine. J. Org. Chem. 1988, 53, 4650–4653. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Moroni, M.; Kokschy, B.; Osipov, S.N.; Crucianelli, M.; Frigerio, M.; Bravo, P.; Burger, K. First synthesis of totally orthogonal protected α-(trifluoromethyl)- and α-(difluoromethyl)arginines. J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 130–133. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bernatowics, M.S. 1H-Pyrazyle-1-carboxamidine Hydrochloride. In Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis; Paquette, L.D., Ed.; Wiley: Sussex, UK, 1995; pp. 4343–4344. [Google Scholar]
- Linton, B.R.; Carr, A.J.; Orner, B.P.; Hamilton, A.D. A Versatile one-pot synthesis of 1,3-substituted guanidines from carbamoyl isothiocyanates. J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 1566–1568. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Manimala, J.C.; Anslyn, E.B. Solid-phase synthesis of guanidinium derivatives from thiourea and isothiourea functionalities. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2002, 2002, 3909–3922. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bowser, A.M.; Madalengoitia, J.S. A 1,3-Diaza-Claisen rearrangement that affords guanidines. Org. Lett. 2004, 6, 3409–3412. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McAlpine, I.J.; Armstrong, R.W. Stereoselective synthesis of a tricyclic guanidinium model of cylindrospermopsin. Tetrahedron Lett. 2000, 41, 1849–1853. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Santagada, V.; Fiorino, F.; Severino, B.; Salvadori, S.; Lazarus, L.H.; Bryant, S.D.; Caliendo, G. A convenient synthesis of N-Fmoc-N,N′-bis-Boc-7-guanyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (Fmoc-N,N′-bis-Boc-7-guanyl-Tic-OH, GTIC). Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 3507–3509. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Mong, D.E.; Williams, R.M. The asymmetric synthesis of (2S,3R)-capreomycidine. Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 3529–3532. [Google Scholar]
- Nagasawa, K.; Koshino, H.; Nakata, T. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic guanidine systems: confirmation of the stereochemistry of batzelladine F left-hand tricyclic guanidine portion. Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 4155–4158. [Google Scholar]
- Ghosh, A.K.; Hol, W.G.J.; Fan, E. Solid-phase synthesis of N-acyl-N'-alkyl/aryl disubstituted guanidines. J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 2161–2164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Powell, D.A.; Phillip, D.; Ramsden, P.D.; Batey, R.A. Phase-transfer-catalyzed alkylation of guanidines by alkyl halides under biphasic conditions: A convenient protocol for the synthesis of highly functionalized guanidines. J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 2300–2309. [Google Scholar]
- Yong, Y.F.; Kowalski, J.A.; Lipton, M.A. A new reagent for solid and solution phase synthesis of protected guanidines from amines. Tetrahedron Lett. 1999, 40, 53–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gers, T.; Kunce, D.; Markowski, P.; Izdebski, J. Reagents for efficient conversion of amines to protected guanidines. Synthesis 2004, 37–42. [Google Scholar]
- Cunha, S.; Rodriguez, M.T., Jr. The first bismuth(III)-catalyzed guanylation of thioureas. Tetrahedron Lett. 2006, 47, 6955–6956. [Google Scholar]
- Porcheddu, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Chinghine, A.; Masala, S. New cellulose-supported reagent: A sustainable approach to guanidines. Org. Lett. 2004, 6, 4925–4927. [Google Scholar]
- Deprez, P.; Vevert, J.P. Efficient two-step syntheses of sulfonylguanidines from sulfonamides. Synth. Commun. 1996, 26, 4299–4310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Levallet, C.; Lerpiniere, J.; Ko, S.Y. The HgCl2-promoted guanylation reaction: The scope and limitations. Tetrahedron 1997, 53, 5291–5304. [Google Scholar]
- Atwal, K.S.; Ahmed, S.Z.; O’Reilly, B.C. A facile synthesis of cyanoguanidines from thioureas. Tetrahedron Lett. 1989, 30, 7313–7316. [Google Scholar]
- Wilson, L.J.; Klopfenstein, S.R.; Li, M. A traceless linker approach to the solid phase synthesis of substituted guanidines utilizing a novel acyl isothiocyanate resin. Tetrahedron Lett. 1999, 40, 3999–4002. [Google Scholar]
- Wang, H.; Ye, C.; Jin, H.; Liu, J.; Wu, J. An expeditious approach to 1-(isoquinolin-1-yl)guanidines via a three-component reaction of 2-alkynylbenzaldehyde, sulfonohydrazide, with carbodiimide. Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 5871–5877. [Google Scholar]
- Zhang, X.; Wang, C.; Qian, C.; Han, F.; Xu, F.; Shen, Q. Heterobimetallic dianionic guanidinate complexes of lanthanide and lithium: Highly efficient precatalysts for catalytic addition of amines to carbodiimides to synthesize guanidines. Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 8790–8799. [Google Scholar]
- Li, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Z.; Fan, E. TFA-sensitive arylsulfonylthiourea-assisted synthesis of N,N'-substituted guanidines. J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 1611–1614. [Google Scholar]
- Kurser, F.; Sanderson, P.M. Thiadiazoles. Part X. The synthesis and isomerisation of 2-aryl-5-arylamino-3-arylimino-Δ4–1,2,4-thiadiazolines. J. Chem. Soc. 1960, 3240–3249. [Google Scholar]
- Weiss, V.S.; Kromer, H.; Prietzel, H. Uber 2-benzthiazolyl-guanidin: Biologische Wirksamkeit und verbessertes Dartellungsverfharen. Chemiker-Zeit. 1975, 99, 291, and references cited therein.. [Google Scholar]
- Téllez, F.; Cruz, A.; López-Sandoval, H.; Ramos-García, I.; Gayosso, M.; Castillo-Sierra, R.N.; Paz-Michel, B.; Nöth, H.; Flores-Parra, A.; Contreras, R. Dithiocarbamates, thiocarbamic esters, dithiocarboimidates, guanidines, thioureas, isothioureas, and tetraazathiapentalene derived from 2-aminobenzothiazole. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 4203–4214. [Google Scholar]
- Merchan, F.L.; Garín, J.; Meléndez, E. A facile synthesis of dimethyl N-(2-benzothiazolyl)-dithiocarbonimidates and methyl N-(2-benzothiazolyl)-dithiocarbamates. Synthesis 1982 1982, 590–591. [Google Scholar]
- Garín, J.; Meléndez, E.; Merchan, F.L.; Ortíz, D.; Tejero, T. 2-(2-Benzimidazolylamino-benzothiazoles and 2-(2-imidazolidinylidenamino)-benzothiazoles. Synthesis 1982, 1066–1067. [Google Scholar]
- Garín, J.; Meléndez, E.; Merchan, F.L.; Ortíz, D.; Tejero, T. A facile synthesis of 8-arylamino- and 8-hetarylaminopurines and their 1- and 3-deaza analogs. Synthesis 1985, 867–869. [Google Scholar]
- Merchan, F.L.; Garín, J.; Meléndez, E.; Tejero, T. A facile synthesis of 2-(2-benzothiazolylamino)-1,3-heterazoles. Synthesis 1987, 368–370. [Google Scholar]
- Cruz, A.; Padilla-Martínez, I.I.; García-Báez, E.V.; Juárez, M.J. S-Methyl-(-N-aryl and -N-alkyl)isothioureas derived from 2-aminobenzothiazole. ARKIVOC 2008, V, 200–209. [Google Scholar]
- Allen, F.H.; Kenard, O.; Watson, D.G.; Brammer, L.; Orpen, A.G.; Taylos, R. Tables of bond lengths determined by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Part 1. Bond lenghts in organic compounds. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II 1987, S1–S19. [Google Scholar]
- Allen, F.H.; Kennard, O.; Watson, D.G.; Brammer, L.; Orpen, A.G.; Taylor, R. Typical Interatomic Distances: Organic Compounds. In International Tables for Crystallography; Wilson, A.J.C., Ed.; The International Union of Crystallography, Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1992; Volume C, p. 685. [Google Scholar]
- Bruker, SMART and SAINT, Versions 6.02a; Bruker AXS Inc.: Madison, WI, USA, 2000.
- Sheldrick, G.M. SHELXS97 and SHELXL97; University of Göttingen: Göttingen, Germany, 1997. [Google Scholar]
- Spek, A.L. PLATON, Version of March 2002; University of Utrecht: Heidelberglaan, The Netherlands, 2002. [Google Scholar]
- Farrugia, L.J. WinGX suite for small molecule single crystal crystallography. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 1999, 32, 837–838. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sample Availability: Samples of the compounds 10f and 10i are available from the authors.
© 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).