This paper was retracted on 5 July 2013, see Molecules 2013, 18(7), 7910-7911.

Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9306-9320; doi:10.3390/molecules17089306
Article

Cytoprotective Effect of Benzyl N'-(5-Chloro-indol-3-yl-methylidene)-hydrazinecarbodithioate Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, University Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam 40450, Malaysia 2 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Benghazi, P.O. Box 18019, Benghazi, Libya 3 Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia 4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2012; in revised form: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diversity)
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Abstract: Indolic compounds have attracted a lot of attention due to their interesting biological properties. The present study was performed to evaluate the subacute toxicity and anti-ulcer activity of BClHC against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. Experimental animal groups were orally pre-treated with different doses of BClHC (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) in 10% Tween 20 solution (vehicle). Blank and ulcer control groups were pre-treated with vehicle. The positive group was orally pretreated with 20 mg/kg omeprazole. After one hour, all groups received absolute ethanol (5 mL/kg) to generate gastric mucosal injury except the blank control group which was administered the vehicle solution. After an additional hour, all rats were sacrificed, and the ulcer areas of the gastric walls determined. Grossly, the ulcer control group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with either derivative or omeprazole resulted in significant protection of gastric mucosal injury. Flattening of gastric mucosal folds was also observed in rats pretreated with BClHC. Histological studies of the gastric wall of ulcer control group revealed severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with either BClHC or omeprazole where there were marked gastric protection along with reduction or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer. Subacute toxicity study with a higher dose of derivative (5 g/kg) did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. In conclusions, the present finding suggests that benzyl N'-(5-chloroindol-3-ylmethylidene)hydrazinecarbodithioate promotes ulcer protection as ascertained by the comparative decreases in ulcer areas, reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of the submucosal layer.
Keywords: indole; benzyl N'-(5-chloroindol-3-ylmethylidene)hydrazinecarbodithioate; histology; omeprazole; gastric ulcer

Retraction

  • Retraction

    This paper was retracted on 05 July 2013 http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/18/7/7910 (PDF, 108 KB)

    I have been made aware of that fact that substantial parts of our paper published in Molecules [1] duplicate the contents of another paper previously published under our names in African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry [2] of which existence I was unaware. Although the compounds reported in both papers are different, I was not aware of the same biological data being used in the earlier publication. The article in Molecules was submitted in good faith based on the collective work that was presented to me by our co-author Dr Mughrabi, listed as the corresponding author of the article published in African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry [2...].

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hashim, H.; Mughrabi, F.F.; Ameen, M.; Khaledi, H.; Ali, H.M. Cytoprotective Effect of Benzyl N'-(5-Chloro-indol-3-yl-methylidene)-hydrazinecarbodithioate Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats. Molecules 2012, 17, 9306-9320.

AMA Style

Hashim H, Mughrabi FF, Ameen M, Khaledi H, Ali HM. Cytoprotective Effect of Benzyl N'-(5-Chloro-indol-3-yl-methylidene)-hydrazinecarbodithioate Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats. Molecules. 2012; 17(8):9306-9320.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hashim, Harita; Mughrabi, Fathi F.; Ameen, Mahmood; Khaledi, Hamid; Ali, Hapipah M. 2012. "Cytoprotective Effect of Benzyl N'-(5-Chloro-indol-3-yl-methylidene)-hydrazinecarbodithioate Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats." Molecules 17, no. 8: 9306-9320.

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