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Molecules 2012, 17(8), 9116-9128; doi:10.3390/molecules17089116
Article

Protective Effects of Chlorella-Derived Peptide Against UVC-Induced Cytotoxicity through Inhibition of Caspase-3 Activity and Reduction of the Expression of Phosphorylated FADD and Cleaved PARP-1 in Skin Fibroblasts

1 and 2,*
1 Department of Pharmacy, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717, Taiwan 2 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 26 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 2 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

UVC irradiation induces oxidative stress and leads to cell death through an apoptotic pathway. This apoptosis is caused by activation of caspase-3 and formation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In this study, the underlying mechanisms of Chlorella derived peptide (CDP) activity against UVC-induced cytotoxicity were investigated. Human skin fibroblasts were treated with CDP, vitamin C, or vitamin E after UVC irradiation for a total energy of 15 J/cm2. After the UVC exposure, cell proliferation and caspase-3 activity were measured at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h later. Expression of phosphorylated FADD and cleaved PARP-1 were measured 16 h later. DNA damage (expressed as pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts DNA concentration) and fragmentation assay were performed 24 h after the UVC exposure. Results showed that UVC irradiation induced cytotoxicity in all groups except those treated with CDP. The caspase-3 activity in CDP-treated cells was inhibited from 12 h onward. Expression of phosphorylated FADD and cleaved PARP-1 were also reduced in CDP-treated cells. Moreover, UVC-induced DNA damage and fragmentation were also prevented by the CDP treatment. This study shows that treatment of CDP provides protective effects against UVC-induced cytotoxicity through the inhibition of caspase-3 activity and the reduction of phosphorylated FADD and cleaved PARP-1 expression.
Keywords: UVC; caspase-3; skin fibroblast UVC; caspase-3; skin fibroblast
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Shih, M.F.; Cherng, J.Y. Protective Effects of Chlorella-Derived Peptide Against UVC-Induced Cytotoxicity through Inhibition of Caspase-3 Activity and Reduction of the Expression of Phosphorylated FADD and Cleaved PARP-1 in Skin Fibroblasts. Molecules 2012, 17, 9116-9128.

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