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Water Assisted Growth of C60 Rods and Tubes by Liquid–Liquid Interfacial Precipitation Method
Department of Physics, Umea University, Umea SE-901 87, Sweden
Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw 02-507, Poland
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences Kasprzaka 48/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry and Berzelii Center EXSELENT on Porous Materials, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, Stockholm S-106-91, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2012; in revised form: 8 May 2012 / Accepted: 21 May 2012 / Published: 5 June 2012
Abstract: C60 nanorods with hexagonal cross sections are grown using a static liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method in a system of C60/m-dichlorobenzene solution and ethanol. Adding water to the ethanol phase leads instead to C60 tubes where both length and diameter of the C60 tubes can be controlled by the water content in the ethanol. Based on our observations we find that the diameter of the rods/tubes strongly depends on the nucleation step. We propose a liquid-liquid interface growth model of C60 rods and tubes based on the diffusion rate of the good C60 containing solvent into the poor solvent as well as on the size of the crystal seeds formed at the interface between the two solvents. The grown rods and tubes exhibit a hexagonal solvate crystal structure with m-dichlorobenzene solvent molecules incorporated into the crystal structure, independent of the water content. An annealing step at 200 °C at a pressure < 1 kPa transforms the grown structures into a solvent-free face centered cubic structure. Both the hexagonal and the face centered cubic structures are very stable and neither morphology nor structure shows any signs of degradation after three months of storage.
Keywords: fullerene; C60 rods; C60 tubes; LLIP method; water-ethanol mixture
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Barzegar, H.R.; Nitze, F.; Malolepszy, A.; Stobinski, L.; Tai, C.-W.; Wågberg, T. Water Assisted Growth of C60 Rods and Tubes by Liquid–Liquid Interfacial Precipitation Method. Molecules 2012, 17, 6840-6853.
Barzegar HR, Nitze F, Malolepszy A, Stobinski L, Tai C-W, Wågberg T. Water Assisted Growth of C60 Rods and Tubes by Liquid–Liquid Interfacial Precipitation Method. Molecules. 2012; 17(6):6840-6853.
Barzegar, Hamid Reza; Nitze, Florian; Malolepszy, Artur; Stobinski, Leszek; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Wågberg, Thomas. 2012. "Water Assisted Growth of C60 Rods and Tubes by Liquid–Liquid Interfacial Precipitation Method." Molecules 17, no. 6: 6840-6853.