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Impact of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Primary, Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Responses of Eleais guineensis Jacq. (Oil Palm) Seedlings
Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2012; in revised form: 21 April 2012 / Accepted: 23 April 2012 / Published: 4 May 2012
Abstract: A split plot 3 by 3 experiment was designed to investigate the relationships among production of primary metabolites (soluble sugar and starch), secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, TF; total phenolics, TP), phenylalanine lyase (PAL) activity (EC 18.104.22.168), protein and antioxidant activity (FRAP) of three progenies of oil palm seedlings, namely Deli AVROS, Deli Yangambi and Deli URT, under three levels of CO2 enrichment (400, 800 and 1,200 µmol·mol−1) for 15 weeks of exposure. During the study, the treatment effects were solely contributed by CO2 enrichment levels; no progenies and interaction effects were observed. As CO2 levels increased from 400 to 1,200 µmol·mol−1, the production of carbohydrate increased steadily, especially for starch more than soluble sugar. The production of total flavonoids and phenolics contents, were the highest under 1,200 and lowest at 400 µmol·mol−1. It was found that PAL activity was peaked under 1,200 µmol·mol−1 followed by 800 µmol·mol−1 and 400 µmol·mol−1. However, soluble protein was highest under 400 µmol·mol−1 and lowest under 1,200 µmol·mol−1. The sucrose/starch ratio, i.e., the indication of sucrose phosphate synthase actvity (EC 22.214.171.124) was found to be lowest as CO2 concentration increased from 400 > 800 > 1,200 µmol·mol−1. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased with increasing CO2 levels, and was significantly lower than vitamin C and α-tocopherol but higher than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Correlation analysis revealed that nitrogen has a significant negative correlation with carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and FRAP activity indicating up-regulation of production of carbohydrate, secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of oil palm seedling under elevated CO2 was due to reduction in nitrogen content in oil palm seedling expose to high CO2 levels.
Keywords: oil palm seedlings; elevated CO2; primary and secondary metabolites; phenyl-alanine lyase (PAL); antioxidant
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Ibrahim, M.H.; Jaafar, H.Z. Impact of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Primary, Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Responses of Eleais guineensis Jacq. (Oil Palm) Seedlings. Molecules 2012, 17, 5195-5211.
Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ. Impact of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Primary, Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Responses of Eleais guineensis Jacq. (Oil Palm) Seedlings. Molecules. 2012; 17(5):5195-5211.
Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z.E. 2012. "Impact of Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Primary, Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Responses of Eleais guineensis Jacq. (Oil Palm) Seedlings." Molecules 17, no. 5: 5195-5211.