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Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources
School of Industrial Technology, University Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang 11800, Malaysia
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University, Kuantan Campus, Kuantan, Pahang D/M 25200, Malaysia
Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
School of Distance Education, University Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang 11800, Malaysia
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 December 2011; in revised form: 8 February 2012 / Accepted: 9 February 2012 / Published: 10 February 2012
Abstract: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.
Keywords: supercritical fluid extraction; palm oil; palm kernel oil; major and minor constitutes of palm oil; use of palm oil; palm oil industry; bioactive lipid components
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Akanda, M.J.H.; Sarker, M.Z.I.; Ferdosh, S.; Manap, M.Y.A.; Ab Rahman, N.N.N.; Ab Kadir, M.O. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources. Molecules 2012, 17, 1764-1794.
Akanda MJH, Sarker MZI, Ferdosh S, Manap MYA, Ab Rahman NNN, Ab Kadir MO. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources. Molecules. 2012; 17(2):1764-1794.
Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar. 2012. "Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources." Molecules 17, no. 2: 1764-1794.