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Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Composition of the Leaves of Solanum guaraniticum A. St.-Hil
Post-Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Santa Maria, Camobi Campus, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900, Brazil
Post-Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Pampa-UNIPAMPA, Uruguaiana, RS 97500-970, Brazil
Post-Graduate Program in Biochemical Toxicology, Federal University of Santa Maria, Camobi Campus, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2012; in revised form: 13 October 2012 / Accepted: 16 October 2012 / Published: 24 October 2012
Abstract: Solanum guaraniticum is a shrub belonging to the Solanaceae family popularly known in Brazil as jurubeba or false-jurubeba. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extract and chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions from its leaves, verifying the ability to remove reactive species and identify and quantify phenolic compounds. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest amount of total polyphenols (546.57 ± 2.35 mg gallic acid equivalent/g) and the lowest IC50 (9.11 ± 0.75 µg/mL) by the DPPH method. Furthermore, the chloroform fraction presented the highest content of flavonoids (75.73 ± 0.34 mg rutin equivalents/g), tannins (56.03 ± 0.68 mg catechin equivalents/g) and alkaloids (10.79 ± 0.06 mg/g). This fraction was effective in the scavenging of reactive species by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, in addition to completely reducing protein carbonyl content and reducing lipid peroxidation at basal levels even at low concentrations. Chlorogenic, caffeic and rosmarinic acids were identified and quantified by HPLC/DAD. These results show that S. guaraniticum is rich in phenolic compounds and has potential as an antioxidant.
Keywords: Solanum guaraniticum; antioxidant activity; polyphenols; HPLC/DAD
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Zadra, M.; Piana, M.; Brum, T.F.; Boligon, A.A.; Freitas, R.B.; Machado, M.M.; Stefanello, S.T.; Soares, F.A.A.; Athayde, M.L. Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Composition of the Leaves of Solanum guaraniticum A. St.-Hil. Molecules 2012, 17, 12560-12574.
Zadra M, Piana M, Brum TF, Boligon AA, Freitas RB, Machado MM, Stefanello ST, Soares FAA, Athayde ML. Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Composition of the Leaves of Solanum guaraniticum A. St.-Hil. Molecules. 2012; 17(11):12560-12574.
Zadra, Marina; Piana, Mariana; Brum, Thiele F.; Boligon, Aline A.; Freitas, Robson B.; Machado, Michel M.; Stefanello, Sílvio T.; Soares, Félix A.A.; Athayde, Margareth L. 2012. "Antioxidant Activity and Phytochemical Composition of the Leaves of Solanum guaraniticum A. St.-Hil." Molecules 17, no. 11: 12560-12574.