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Synthetic Flavanones Augment the Anticancer Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, Zabrze 41-808, Poland
Department of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Norwida 25, Wrocław 50-375, Poland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2012; in revised form: 3 September 2012 / Accepted: 24 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is considered as the most promising anticancer agent in the TNF superfamily because of its selective cytotoxicity against tumor cells versus normal primary cells. However, as more tumor cells are reported to be resistant to TRAIL-mediated death, it is important to develop new therapeutic strategies to overcome this resistance. Flavonoids have been shown to sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The aim of this study was to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of TRAIL on HeLa cancer cells in combination with two synthetic compounds: 6-hydroxyflavanone (6-HF) and its derivative 6-propionoxy-flavanone (6-PF) and to determine the mechanism by which the flavanones overcome the TRAIL-resistance. The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT and LDH assays. The apoptosis was detected by annexin V-FITC fluorescence staining in flow cytometry and microscopy. Death receptor (TRAIL-R1/DR4 and TRAIL-R2/DR5) expression were analysed using flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated using DePsipher staining by fluorescence microscopy. The synthetic flavanones enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells through increased expression of TRAIL-R2 death receptor and reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our study indicates that the 6-HF and 6-PF augmented the anticancer effects of TRAIL and confirm a potential use of flavanones in TRAIL-based anticancer therapy and prevention.
Keywords: flavanones; 6-hydroxyflavanone (6-HF); 6-propionoxyflavanone (6-PF); TRAIL; apoptosis; death receptor; mitochondrial pathway; cancer cells
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MDPI and ACS Style
Szliszka, E.; Kostrzewa-Susłow, E.; Bronikowska, J.; Jaworska, D.; Janeczko, T.; Czuba, Z.P.; Krol, W. Synthetic Flavanones Augment the Anticancer Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL). Molecules 2012, 17, 11693-11711.
Szliszka E, Kostrzewa-Susłow E, Bronikowska J, Jaworska D, Janeczko T, Czuba ZP, Krol W. Synthetic Flavanones Augment the Anticancer Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL). Molecules. 2012; 17(10):11693-11711.
Szliszka, Ewelina; Kostrzewa-Susłow, Edyta; Bronikowska, Joanna; Jaworska, Dagmara; Janeczko, Tomasz; Czuba, Zenon P.; Krol, Wojciech. 2012. "Synthetic Flavanones Augment the Anticancer Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)." Molecules 17, no. 10: 11693-11711.