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Novel Library of Selenocompounds as Kinase Modulators
Department of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Navarra, Irunlarrea, 1, Pamplona E-31008, Spain
Oncology Division, Center for Applied Medical Research, CIMA, University of Navarra, Pío XII, 53, Pamplona E-31008, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2011; in revised form: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 27 July 2011
Abstract: Although the causes of cancer lie in mutations or epigenic changes at the genetic level, their molecular manifestation is the dysfunction of biochemical pathways at the protein level. The 518 protein kinases encoded by the human genome play a central role in various diseases, a fact that has encouraged extensive investigations on their biological function and three dimensional structures. Selenium (Se) is an important nutritional trace element involved in different physiological functions with antioxidative, antitumoral and chemopreventive properties. The mechanisms of action for selenocompounds as anticancer agents are not fully understood, but kinase modulation seems to be a possible pathway. Various organosulfur compounds have shown antitumoral and kinase inhibition effects but, in many cases, the replacement of sulfur by selenium improves the antitumoral effect of compounds. Although Se atom possesses a larger atomic volume and nucleophilic character than sulfur, Se can also formed interactions with aminoacids of the catalytic centers of proteins. So, we propose a novel chemical library that includes organoselenium compounds as kinase modulators. In this study thirteen selenocompounds have been evaluated at a concentration of 3 or 10 µM in a 24 kinase panel using a Caliper LabChip 3000 Drug Discover Platform. Several receptor (EGFR, IGFR1, FGFR1…) and non-receptor (Abl) kinases have been selected, as well as serine/threonine/lipid kinases (AurA, Akt, CDKs, MAPKs…) implicated in main cancer pathways: cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, angiogenesis regulation among them. The obtained results showed that two compounds presented inhibition values higher than 50% in at least four kinases and seven derivatives selectively inhibited one or two kinases. Furthermore, three compounds selectively activated IGF-1R kinase with values ranging from −98% to −211%. In conclusion, we propose that the replacement of sulfur by selenium seems to be a potential and useful strategy in the search of novel chemical compound libraries against cancer as kinase modulators.
Keywords: selenium; kinases; PI3K; AKT; mTOR
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Plano, D.; Ibáñez, E.; Calvo, A.; Palop, J.A.; Sanmartín, C. Novel Library of Selenocompounds as Kinase Modulators. Molecules 2011, 16, 6349-6364.
Plano D, Ibáñez E, Calvo A, Palop JA, Sanmartín C. Novel Library of Selenocompounds as Kinase Modulators. Molecules. 2011; 16(8):6349-6364.
Plano, Daniel; Ibáñez, Elena; Calvo, Alfonso; Palop, Juan Antonio; Sanmartín, Carmen. 2011. "Novel Library of Selenocompounds as Kinase Modulators." Molecules 16, no. 8: 6349-6364.