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Molecules 2011, 16(8), 6193-6205; doi:10.3390/molecules16086193

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae)

1
Microbial Pathogenicity and Molecular Epidemiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
2
AIDS Virus Research Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, University of Venda, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
3
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, Box 63, Buea, Cameroon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 June 2011 / Revised: 15 July 2011 / Accepted: 21 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638) of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics) and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0–23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0–35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100%) was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05), followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%). The MIC50 values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC90 values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to >0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05). Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC) at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC) in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; Bridelia micrantha; minimum inhibitory concentration; rate of kill; phytochemicals Helicobacter pylori; Bridelia micrantha; minimum inhibitory concentration; rate of kill; phytochemicals
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Okeleye, B.I.; Bessong, P.O.; Ndip, R.N. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae). Molecules 2011, 16, 6193-6205.

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