Molecules 2011, 16(7), 5349-5361; doi:10.3390/molecules16075349
Article

Neuroprotective Effects of Vanillyl Alcohol in Gastrodia elata Blume Through Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Anti-Apoptotic Activity in Toxin-Induced Dopaminergic MN9D Cells

1 Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701, Korea 2 Department of Occupation and Environment, University of Konkuk Postgraduate Medical, Chungju 380-701, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2011; in revised form: 21 June 2011 / Accepted: 22 June 2011 / Published: 24 June 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract: Gastrodia elata Blume (GE) has long been used in oriental countries as a traditional herbal medicine to relieve symptoms associated with neurological ailments such as vertigo, general paralysis and epilepsy. In this study, we have investigated the effects of GE extracts and its major bioactive components on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-treated MN9D dopaminergic cells, a classic in vitro model for Parkinson’s disease (PD). We found that vanillyl alcohol effectively inhibited the cytotoxicity and improved cell viability in MPP+-induced MN9D dopaminergic cells. The underlying mechanisms of vanillyl alcohol action were also studied. Vanillyl alcohol attenuated the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, decreased in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis. These results indicate that vanillyl alcohol protected dopaminergic MN9D cells against MPP+-induced apoptosis by relieving oxidative stress and modulating the apoptotic process and is therefore a potential candidate for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease.
Keywords: vanillyl alcohol; MPP+; MN9D cells; reactive oxygen species; neuroprotection

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, I.S.; Choi, D.-K.; Jung, H.J. Neuroprotective Effects of Vanillyl Alcohol in Gastrodia elata Blume Through Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Anti-Apoptotic Activity in Toxin-Induced Dopaminergic MN9D Cells. Molecules 2011, 16, 5349-5361.

AMA Style

Kim IS, Choi D-K, Jung HJ. Neuroprotective Effects of Vanillyl Alcohol in Gastrodia elata Blume Through Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Anti-Apoptotic Activity in Toxin-Induced Dopaminergic MN9D Cells. Molecules. 2011; 16(7):5349-5361.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, In Su; Choi, Dong-Kug; Jung, Hun Jong. 2011. "Neuroprotective Effects of Vanillyl Alcohol in Gastrodia elata Blume Through Suppression of Oxidative Stress and Anti-Apoptotic Activity in Toxin-Induced Dopaminergic MN9D Cells." Molecules 16, no. 7: 5349-5361.

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