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Molecules 2011, 16(4), 3106-3118; doi:10.3390/molecules16043106

Chemically Induced Photoswitching of Fluorescent Probes—A General Concept for Super-Resolution Microscopy

1
Biotechnology & Biophysics, Julius-Maximilians-University Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
2
Bioquant Centre, University of Heidelberg, INF 297, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
3
Department of Systemic Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Otto-Hahn-Strasse 11, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 March 2011 / Revised: 8 April 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
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Abstract

We review fluorescent probes that can be photoswitched or photoactivated and are suited for single-molecule localization based super-resolution microscopy. We exploit the underlying photochemical mechanisms that allow photoswitching of many synthetic organic fluorophores in the presence of reducing agents, and study the impact of these on the photoswitching properties of various photoactivatable or photoconvertible fluorescent proteins. We have identified mEos2 as a fluorescent protein that exhibits reversible photoswitching under various imaging buffer conditions and present strategies to characterize reversible photoswitching. Finally, we discuss opportunities to combine fluorescent proteins with organic fluorophores for dual-color photoswitching microscopy.
Keywords: photoswitchable organic fluorophores; fluorescent proteins; super-resolution; PALM; dSTORM photoswitchable organic fluorophores; fluorescent proteins; super-resolution; PALM; dSTORM
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Endesfelder, U.; Malkusch, S.; Flottmann, B.; Mondry, J.; Liguzinski, P.; Verveer, P.J.; Heilemann, M. Chemically Induced Photoswitching of Fluorescent Probes—A General Concept for Super-Resolution Microscopy. Molecules 2011, 16, 3106-3118.

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