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Molecules 2011, 16(10), 8874-8893; doi:10.3390/molecules16108874
Article

Autotoxicity and Allelopathy of 3,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone Isolated from Picea schrenkiana Needles

1,2, 2, 2,4,* , 3, 1,*  and 4
1 College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China 2 Ningbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University, Ningbo, 315100, China 3 College of Forestry, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, 830052, China 4 Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Clemson University, 261 Lehotsky Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2011 / Revised: 9 October 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the diethyl ether fraction of a water extract of Picea schrenkiana needles led to the isolation of the phenolic compound 3,4-dihydroxy- acetophenone (DHAP). The allelopathic effects of DHAP were evaluated under laboratory conditions on P. schrenkiana, rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), lettuce (Latuca sativa L.), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and mung bean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). DHAP significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of P. schrenkiana at concentrations of 2.5 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). Soil analysis revealed that P. schrenkiana forest soils contained exceptionally high DHAP concentrations (mean = 0.51 ± 0.03 mg/g dry soil), sufficient to inhibit natural P. schrenkiana recruitment. DHAP also exhibited strong allelopathic potential. It significantly inhibited wheat and lettuce seed germination at concentrations of 1 mM and 0.5 mM (p < 0.05). The active compound also completely inhibited root growth of the six test species at high concentrations. Our results suggest a dual role of DHAP, both as an allelochemical and as an autotoxicant. The potential for a single plant needle-leached compound to influence both inter- and intra-specific interactions emphasized the complex effects that plant secondary metabolites might have on plant population and community structure.
Keywords: Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey.; allelochemicals; 3,4-dihydroxy acetophenone (DHAP); germination rate; germination vigor; seedling growth Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey.; allelochemicals; 3,4-dihydroxy acetophenone (DHAP); germination rate; germination vigor; seedling growth
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ruan, X.; Li, Z.-H.; Wang, Q.; Pan, C.-D.; Jiang, D.-A.; Wang, G.G. Autotoxicity and Allelopathy of 3,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone Isolated from Picea schrenkiana Needles. Molecules 2011, 16, 8874-8893.

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