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Molecules 2011, 16(10), 8848-8865; doi:10.3390/molecules16108848

Transcriptional and Functional Analysis Shows Sodium Houttuyfonate-Mediated Inhibition of Autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus

1,†, 1,†, 4,†, 5,†, 1,†, 1,†, 2,†, 1,†, 1,†, 1,†, 1,†, 1, 1, 1, 1,*  and 1,3,*
1 Key Laboratory for Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China 2 Department of Food Quality and Safety, College of Quartermaster Technology, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China 3 State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100176, China 4 Key Lab for New Drug Research of TCM, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057, China 5 Department of Infectious Diseases, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2011 / Accepted: 17 October 2011 / Published: 21 October 2011
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Sodium houttuyfonate (SH), an addition compound of sodium bisulfite and houttuynin, showed in vitro antibacterial activity against 21 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains grown in planktonic cultures. Microarray results showed decreased levels of autolysin atl, sle1, cidA and lytN transcripts in the SH-treated strain as compared to the control strain, consistent with the induction of the autolytic repressors lrgAB and sarA and with the downregulation of the positive regulators agrA and RNAIII. Triton X-100-induced autolysis was significantly decreased by SH in S. aureus ATCC 25923, and quantitative bacteriolytic assays and zymographic analysis demonstrated SH-mediated reduction of extracellular murein hydrolase activity in these cells. Anti-biofilm assay showed that SH is poorly active against S. aureus grown in biofilm cultures, whereas SH diminished the amounts of extracellular DNA (eDNA) of S. aureus in a dose-dependent manner, which suggested that SH may impede biofilm formation by reducing the expression of cidA to inhibit autolysis and eDNA release in the early phase. Some of the microarray results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR.
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; sodium houttuyfonate; GeneChip; transcription Staphylococcus aureus; sodium houttuyfonate; GeneChip; transcription
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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Liu, G.; Xiang, H.; Tang, X.; Zhang, K.; Wu, X.; Wang, X.; Guo, N.; Feng, H.; Wang, G.; Liu, L.; Shi, Q.; Shen, F.; Xing, M.; Yuan, P.; Liu, M.; Yu, L. Transcriptional and Functional Analysis Shows Sodium Houttuyfonate-Mediated Inhibition of Autolysis in Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules 2011, 16, 8848-8865.

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