Next Article in Journal
Targeting Cell Entry of Enveloped Viruses as an Antiviral Strategy
Next Article in Special Issue
Lipophilic Toxin Profile in Mytilus galloprovincialis during Episodes of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) in the N.E. Adriatic Sea in 2006
Previous Article in Journal
Casbane Diterpene as a Promising Natural Antimicrobial Agent against Biofilm-Associated Infections
Previous Article in Special Issue
µ-Conotoxins as Leads in the Development of New Analgesics
Molecules 2011, 16(1), 202-220; doi:10.3390/molecules16010202

Small Molecule Inhibitors as Countermeasures for Botulinum Neurotoxin Intoxication

1,* , 1, 1, 2
1 and 1
1 Microbiotix, Inc., One Innovation Drive, Worcester, MA 01605, USA 2 Target, Structure-Based Drug Discovery Group, SAIC-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, 1050 Boyles Street, Frederick, MD 21702, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2010 / Revised: 20 December 2010 / Accepted: 29 December 2010 / Published: 30 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins - Organic and Analytical Chemistry)
Download PDF [3737 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]


Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent of known toxins and are listed as category A biothreat agents by the U.S. CDC. The BoNT-mediated proteolysis of SNARE proteins inhibits the exocytosis of acetylcholine into neuromuscular junctions, leading to life-threatening flaccid paralysis. Currently, the only therapy for BoNT intoxication (which results in the disease state botulism) includes experimental preventative antibodies and long-term supportive care. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and develop inhibitors that will serve as both prophylactic agents and post-exposure ‘rescue’ therapeutics. This review focuses on recent progress to discover and develop small molecule inhibitors as therapeutic countermeasures for BoNT intoxication.
Keywords: inum neurotoxin; inhibitor; drug discovery inum neurotoxin; inhibitor; drug discovery
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
MDPI and ACS Style

Li, B.; Peet, N.P.; Butler, M.M.; Burnett, J.C.; Moir, D.T.; Bowlin, T.L. Small Molecule Inhibitors as Countermeasures for Botulinum Neurotoxin Intoxication. Molecules 2011, 16, 202-220.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


Cited By

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert