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Molecules 2010, 15(9), 6332-6348; doi:10.3390/molecules15096332
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Transactivation of Genes Encoding for Phase II Enzymes and Phase III Transporters by Phytochemical Antioxidants

, ,  and *
Innovative Drug Research Center for Metabolic and Inflammatory Disease, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro 599, Seoul 151-742, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2010 / Revised: 31 August 2010 / Accepted: 3 September 2010 / Published: 7 September 2010
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Abstract

The induction of phase II enzymes and phase III transporters contributes to the metabolism, detoxification of xenobiotics, antioxidant capacity, redox homeostasis and cell viability. Transactivation of the genes that encode for phase II enzymes and phase III transporters is coordinatively regulated by activating transcription factors in response to external stimuli. Comprehensive studies indicate that antioxidant phytochemicals promote the induction of phase II enzymes and/or phase III transporters through various signaling pathways, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. This paper focuses on the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways responsible for the transactivation of genes encoding for these proteins, as orchestrated by a series of transcription factors and related signaling components.
Keywords: phase 2 enzyme; phase 3 transporter; NF-E2-related factor 2; CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-b; hepatic nuclear factor; farnesoid X receptor phase 2 enzyme; phase 3 transporter; NF-E2-related factor 2; CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-b; hepatic nuclear factor; farnesoid X receptor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, Y.M.; Noh, K.; Han, C.Y.; Kim, S.G. Transactivation of Genes Encoding for Phase II Enzymes and Phase III Transporters by Phytochemical Antioxidants. Molecules 2010, 15, 6332-6348.

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