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Molecules 2010, 15(7), 4511-4525; doi:10.3390/molecules15074511
Article

Palladium/Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite as a Highly Recyclable Catalyst for C-C Coupling Reactions in Water

1, 1,2,* , 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 and 1,*
Received: 10 May 2010 / Revised: 16 June 2010 / Accepted: 21 June 2010 / Published: 24 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-catalysts and Nano-technologies for Green Organic Synthesis)
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Abstract

Palladium nanoparticles have been electrochemically supported on zirconium oxide nanostructured powders and all the nanomaterials have been characterized by several analytical techniques. The Pd/ZrO2 nanocatalyst is demonstrated to be a very efficient catalyst in Heck, Ullmann, and Suzuki reactions of aryl halides in water. The catalyst efficiency is attributed to the stabilization of Pd nanophases provided by tetra(alkyl)- ammonium hydroxide, which behaves both as base and PTC (phase transfer catalyst) agent.
Keywords: C-C coupling; palladium; colloids; green chemistry; nanocomposite catalysts C-C coupling; palladium; colloids; green chemistry; nanocomposite catalysts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Monopoli, A.; Nacci, A.; Calò, V.; Ciminale, F.; Cotugno, P.; Mangone, A.; Giannossa, L.C.; Azzone, P.; Cioffi, N. Palladium/Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite as a Highly Recyclable Catalyst for C-C Coupling Reactions in Water. Molecules 2010, 15, 4511-4525.

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