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Molecules 2010, 15(7), 4511-4525; doi:10.3390/molecules15074511
Article

Palladium/Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite as a Highly Recyclable Catalyst for C-C Coupling Reactions in Water

1, 1,2,* , 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1 and 1,*
1 Department of Chemistry, Università degli Studi Aldo Moro, Via Orabona 4, 70126-Bari, Italy 2 CNR – ICCOM, Department of Chemistry, Università degli Studi Aldo Moro, Via Orabona 4, 70126-Bari, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 May 2010 / Revised: 16 June 2010 / Accepted: 21 June 2010 / Published: 24 June 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-catalysts and Nano-technologies for Green Organic Synthesis)
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Abstract

Palladium nanoparticles have been electrochemically supported on zirconium oxide nanostructured powders and all the nanomaterials have been characterized by several analytical techniques. The Pd/ZrO2 nanocatalyst is demonstrated to be a very efficient catalyst in Heck, Ullmann, and Suzuki reactions of aryl halides in water. The catalyst efficiency is attributed to the stabilization of Pd nanophases provided by tetra(alkyl)- ammonium hydroxide, which behaves both as base and PTC (phase transfer catalyst) agent.
Keywords: C-C coupling; palladium; colloids; green chemistry; nanocomposite catalysts C-C coupling; palladium; colloids; green chemistry; nanocomposite catalysts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Monopoli, A.; Nacci, A.; Calò, V.; Ciminale, F.; Cotugno, P.; Mangone, A.; Giannossa, L.C.; Azzone, P.; Cioffi, N. Palladium/Zirconium Oxide Nanocomposite as a Highly Recyclable Catalyst for C-C Coupling Reactions in Water. Molecules 2010, 15, 4511-4525.

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