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Design, Synthesis and Structure-activity Studies of Rhodanine Derivatives as HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors
Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, 1985 Zonal Avenue, PSC 304, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky avenue, 47, 119991 Moscow, Russia
D.I. Mendeleev Russian University for Chemical Technology, Miusskaya sq., 9, 125047 Moscow, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 March 2010; in revised form: 13 May 2010 / Accepted: 15 May 2010 / Published: 1 June 2010
Abstract: Raltegravir was the first HIV-1 integrase inhibitor that gained FDA approval for use in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Because of the emergence of IN inhibitor-resistant viral strains, there is a need to identify innovative second-generation IN inhibitors. Previously, we identified 2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (rhodanine)-containing compounds as IN inhibitors. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and docking studies of a series of novel rhodanine derivatives as IN inhibitors. All these compounds were further tested against human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) to determine their selectivity. Two compounds showed significant cytotoxicity in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results show that rhodanines are a promising class of compounds for developing drugs with antiviral and anticancer properties.
Keywords: rhodanine; HIV-1; integrase; APE1; 2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone; docking
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Ramkumar, K.; Yarovenko, V.N.; Nikitina, A.S.; Zavarzin, I.V.; Krayushkin, M.M.; Kovalenko, L.V.; Esqueda, A.; Odde, S.; Neamati, N. Design, Synthesis and Structure-activity Studies of Rhodanine Derivatives as HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors. Molecules 2010, 15, 3958-3992.
Ramkumar K, Yarovenko VN, Nikitina AS, Zavarzin IV, Krayushkin MM, Kovalenko LV, Esqueda A, Odde S, Neamati N. Design, Synthesis and Structure-activity Studies of Rhodanine Derivatives as HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors. Molecules. 2010; 15(6):3958-3992.
Ramkumar, Kavya; Yarovenko, Vladimir N.; Nikitina, Alexandra S.; Zavarzin, Igor V.; Krayushkin, Mikhail M.; Kovalenko, Leonid V.; Esqueda, Adrian; Odde, Srinivas; Neamati, Nouri. 2010. "Design, Synthesis and Structure-activity Studies of Rhodanine Derivatives as HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors." Molecules 15, no. 6: 3958-3992.