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Molecules 2010, 15(4), 2439-2452; doi:10.3390/molecules15042439
Article

Thermal Analysis Applied to Verapamil Hydrochloride Characterization in Pharmaceutical Formulations

1, 1, 2, 3 and 3,*
Received: 8 January 2010; in revised form: 20 February 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 8 April 2010
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Abstract: Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are useful techniques that have been successfully applied in the pharmaceutical industry to reveal important information regarding the physicochemical properties of drug and excipient molecules such as polymorphism, stability, purity, formulation compatibility among others. Verapamil hydrochloride shows thermal stability up to 180 °C and melts at 146 °C, followed by total degradation. The drug is compatible with all the excipients evaluated. The drug showed degradation when subjected to oxidizing conditions, suggesting that the degradation product is 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid derived from alkyl side chain oxidation. Verapamil hydrochloride does not present the phenomenon of polymorphism under the conditions evaluated. Assessing the drug degradation kinetics, the drug had a shelf life (t90) of 56.7 years and a pharmaceutical formulation showed t90 of 6.8 years showing their high stability.
Keywords: verapamil hydrochloride; thermal analysis; degradation kinetics; characterization verapamil hydrochloride; thermal analysis; degradation kinetics; characterization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoshida, M.I.; Gomes, E.C.L.; Soares, C.D.V.; Cunha, A.F.; Oliveira, M.A. Thermal Analysis Applied to Verapamil Hydrochloride Characterization in Pharmaceutical Formulations. Molecules 2010, 15, 2439-2452.

AMA Style

Yoshida MI, Gomes ECL, Soares CDV, Cunha AF, Oliveira MA. Thermal Analysis Applied to Verapamil Hydrochloride Characterization in Pharmaceutical Formulations. Molecules. 2010; 15(4):2439-2452.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yoshida, Maria Irene; Gomes, Elionai Cassiana Lima; Soares, Cristina Duarte Vianna; Cunha, Alexandre Frinhani; Oliveira, Marcelo Antonio. 2010. "Thermal Analysis Applied to Verapamil Hydrochloride Characterization in Pharmaceutical Formulations." Molecules 15, no. 4: 2439-2452.


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