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Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2010; in revised form: 5 March 2010 / Accepted: 10 March 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins
Abstract: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.
Keywords: vitamins A; B; C; D; and E; folic acid; retinoids; SNP; prostate cancer
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Donkena, K.V.; Karnes, R.J.; Young, C.Y. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk. Molecules 2010, 15, 1762-1783.
Donkena KV, Karnes RJ, Young CY. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk. Molecules. 2010; 15(3):1762-1783.
Donkena, Krishna Vanaja; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Young, Charles Y.F. 2010. "Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk." Molecules 15, no. 3: 1762-1783.