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Molecules 2010, 15(3), 1762-1783; doi:10.3390/molecules15031762

Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk

,  and *
Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2010 / Revised: 5 March 2010 / Accepted: 10 March 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins)
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Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.
Keywords: vitamins A; B; C; D; and E; folic acid; retinoids; SNP; prostate cancer vitamins A; B; C; D; and E; folic acid; retinoids; SNP; prostate cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Donkena, K.V.; Karnes, R.J.; Young, C.Y. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk. Molecules 2010, 15, 1762-1783.

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