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Arginine as a Synergistic Virucidal Agent
Aridis Pharmaceuticals, 5941 Optical Court, San Jose, CA 95138, USA
Alliance Protein Laboratories, 3957 Corte Cancion, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360, USA
Division of Virology, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Wakayama Medical University Graduate School of Medicine, Wakayama 641-8509, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2010; in revised form: 11 February 2010 / Accepted: 4 March 2010 / Published: 8 March 2010
Abstract: Development of effective and environmentally friendly disinfectants, or virucidal agents, should help prevent the spread of infectious diseases through human contact with contaminated surfaces. These agents may also be used, if non-toxic to cells and tissues, as chemotherapeutic agents against infectious diseases. We have shown that arginine has a synergistic effect with a variety of virucidal conditions, namely acidic pH and high temperature, on virus inactivation. All of these treatments are effective, however, at the expense of toxicity. The ability of arginine to lower the effective threshold of these parameters may reduce the occurrence of potential toxic side effects. While it is clear that arginine can be safely used, the mechanism of its virus inactivation has not yet been elucidated. Here we examine the damages that viruses suffer from various physical and chemical stresses and their relations to virus inactivation and aggregation. Based on the relationship between the stress-induced structural damages and the infectivity of a virus, we will propose several plausible mechanisms describing the effects of arginine on virus inactivation using the current knowledge of aqueous arginine solution properties.
Keywords: virus inactivation; arginine; virus aggregation; infectivity; disinfectant
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ohtake, S.; Arakawa, T.; Koyama, A.H. Arginine as a Synergistic Virucidal Agent. Molecules 2010, 15, 1408-1424.
Ohtake S, Arakawa T, Koyama AH. Arginine as a Synergistic Virucidal Agent. Molecules. 2010; 15(3):1408-1424.
Ohtake, Satoshi; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Koyama, A. Hajime. 2010. "Arginine as a Synergistic Virucidal Agent." Molecules 15, no. 3: 1408-1424.