Molecules 2010, 15(3), 1340-1353; doi:10.3390/molecules15031340
Article

I2-Catalyzed Oxidative Condensation of Aldoses with Diamines: Synthesis of Aldo-Naphthimidazoles for Carbohydrate Analysis

Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, No. 128, Academia Road Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2010; in revised form: 2 March 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 5 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Iodine Chemistry)
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Abstract: A novel method for the conversion of unprotected and unmodified aldoses to aldo-imidazoles has been developed. Using iodine as a catalyst in acetic acid solution, a series of mono- and oligosaccharides, including those containing carboxyl and acetamido groups, undergo an oxidative condensation reaction with aromatic vicinal diamines at room temperature to give the corresponding aldo-imidazole products in high yields. No cleavage of the glycosidic bond occurs under the mild reaction conditions. The compositional analysis of saccharides is commonly realized by capillary electropheresis of the corresponding aldo-imidazole derivatives, which are easily synthesized by the reported iodine-promoted oxidative condensation. In addition, a series of aldo-imidazoles were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF MS) to analyze molecular weight and ion intensity. The diamine-labeled saccharides showed enhanced signals in MALDI–TOF MS. The combined use of aldoimidazole derivatization and mass spectrometric analysis thus provides a rapid method for identification of saccharides, even when less than 1 pmol of saccharide is present in the sample. These results can be further applied to facilitate the isolation and analysis of novel saccharides.
Keywords: iodine; saccharides; aldo-imidazole (aldo-IM); matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI–TOF MS)

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, C.; Hung, W.-T.; Kuo, C.-Y.; Liao, K.-S.; Liu, Y.-C.; Yang, W.-B. I2-Catalyzed Oxidative Condensation of Aldoses with Diamines: Synthesis of Aldo-Naphthimidazoles for Carbohydrate Analysis. Molecules 2010, 15, 1340-1353.

AMA Style

Lin C, Hung W-T, Kuo C-Y, Liao K-S, Liu Y-C, Yang W-B. I2-Catalyzed Oxidative Condensation of Aldoses with Diamines: Synthesis of Aldo-Naphthimidazoles for Carbohydrate Analysis. Molecules. 2010; 15(3):1340-1353.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Chunchi; Hung, Wei-Ting; Kuo, Chien-Yuan; Liao, Kuo-Shiang; Liu, Yin-Chen; Yang, Wen-Bin. 2010. "I2-Catalyzed Oxidative Condensation of Aldoses with Diamines: Synthesis of Aldo-Naphthimidazoles for Carbohydrate Analysis." Molecules 15, no. 3: 1340-1353.

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