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Molecules 2010, 15(2), 627-638; doi:10.3390/molecules15020627

Essential Oil Composition of Stems and Fruits of Caralluma europaea N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae)

1, 1,* , 2, 2, 2, 3 and 3
1 Dipartimento di Scienze Botaniche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Via Archirafi 38, I-90123 Palermo, Italy 2 Dipartimento di Chimica Organica, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Parco d’Orleans II, I-90128 Palermo, Italy 3 Dipartimento di Chimica delle Sostanze Naturali, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via D. Montesano, 49, I-80131 Napoli, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2009 / Revised: 19 January 2010 / Accepted: 22 January 2010 / Published: 27 January 2010
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The essential oil of the stems and fruits of Caralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae) from Lampedusa Island has been obtained by hydrodistillation and its composition analyzed. The analyses allowed the identification and quantification of 74 volatile compounds, of which 16 were aromatic and 58 non-aromatic. Stems and fruits contained 1.4% and 2.7% of aromatic compounds respectively, while non-aromatic were 88.3% and 88.8%. Non-aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant compounds in both organs, followed by fatty acids. Data showed differences in the profiles between stems and fruits which shared only eighteen compounds; stems accounted for 38 compounds while fruits for 53. Fruits showed a higher diversity especially in aromatic compounds with twelve versus four in stems. Among the volatiles identified in stems and fruits of C. europaea 26 are present in other taxa of Apocynaceae, 52 are semiochemicals for many insects, and 21 have antimicrobial activity. The possible ecological role of the volatiles found is briefly discussed.
Keywords: antimicrobial; Apocynaceae; Caralluma europaea; essential oils; semiochemicals antimicrobial; Apocynaceae; Caralluma europaea; essential oils; semiochemicals
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Zito, P.; Sajeva, M.; Bruno, M.; Maggio, A.; Rosselli, S.; Formisano, C.; Senatore, F. Essential Oil Composition of Stems and Fruits of Caralluma europaea N.E.Br. (Apocynaceae). Molecules 2010, 15, 627-638.

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