Molecules 2010, 15(11), 8377-8389; doi:10.3390/molecules15118377
Article

Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Ta-Jen University, Ping Tung Hsien, Taiwan 2 Dental Research Institute, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 3 Department of Surgery/Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 4 Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 November 2010; in revised form: 15 November 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 16 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract: Extract of Toona sinensis (TS) has been reported to have various effects on cultured cell lines, including anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells. We have studied the effects of TS on various human oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (HOSCC), including UM1, UM2, SCC-4, and SCC-9. These cell lines were treated with TS leaf extract and screened for viability, apoptosis, necrosis, and apoptotic gene expression. Normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK) served as a control for cytotoxic assays. Viability of TS-treated HOSCC was reduced, whereas that of NHOK was not affected. FACScan analysis revealed that the leaf extract induced apoptosis or a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, depending on cell type. Microarray and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis for apoptotic-related gene expression revealed that 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid, one of the major bioactive compounds purified from TS extract) up-regulated pro-apoptotic genes such TNF-α, TP53BP2, and GADD45A, and down-regulated the anti-apoptotic genes Survivin and cIAP1, resulting in cell death. This study suggests that gallic acid, the major bioactive compound present, is responsible for the anti-neoplastic effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract.
Keywords: apoptosis; necrosis; Toona sinensis; human oral squamous cell carcinoma; normal human oral kerationcytes; gallic acid

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chia, Y.-C.; Rajbanshi, R.; Calhoun, C.; Chiu, R.H. Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells. Molecules 2010, 15, 8377-8389.

AMA Style

Chia Y-C, Rajbanshi R, Calhoun C, Chiu RH. Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells. Molecules. 2010; 15(11):8377-8389.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chia, Yi-Chen; Rajbanshi, Ranjan; Calhoun, Colonya; Chiu, Robert H. 2010. "Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells." Molecules 15, no. 11: 8377-8389.

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