Next Article in Journal
Previous Article in Journal
Molecules 2010, 15(11), 8377-8389; doi:10.3390/molecules15118377
Article

Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

1,* , 2, 2 and 2,3,4,*
Received: 2 November 2010; in revised form: 15 November 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 16 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
Download PDF [468 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]
Abstract: Extract of Toona sinensis (TS) has been reported to have various effects on cultured cell lines, including anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells. We have studied the effects of TS on various human oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (HOSCC), including UM1, UM2, SCC-4, and SCC-9. These cell lines were treated with TS leaf extract and screened for viability, apoptosis, necrosis, and apoptotic gene expression. Normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK) served as a control for cytotoxic assays. Viability of TS-treated HOSCC was reduced, whereas that of NHOK was not affected. FACScan analysis revealed that the leaf extract induced apoptosis or a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, depending on cell type. Microarray and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis for apoptotic-related gene expression revealed that 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid, one of the major bioactive compounds purified from TS extract) up-regulated pro-apoptotic genes such TNF-α, TP53BP2, and GADD45A, and down-regulated the anti-apoptotic genes Survivin and cIAP1, resulting in cell death. This study suggests that gallic acid, the major bioactive compound present, is responsible for the anti-neoplastic effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract.
Keywords: apoptosis; necrosis; Toona sinensis; human oral squamous cell carcinoma; normal human oral kerationcytes; gallic acid apoptosis; necrosis; Toona sinensis; human oral squamous cell carcinoma; normal human oral kerationcytes; gallic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Chia, Y.-C.; Rajbanshi, R.; Calhoun, C.; Chiu, R.H. Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells. Molecules 2010, 15, 8377-8389.

AMA Style

Chia Y-C, Rajbanshi R, Calhoun C, Chiu RH. Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells. Molecules. 2010; 15(11):8377-8389.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chia, Yi-Chen; Rajbanshi, Ranjan; Calhoun, Colonya; Chiu, Robert H. 2010. "Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells." Molecules 15, no. 11: 8377-8389.


Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert