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The Apoptotic Effect of 1’S-1’-Acetoxychavicol Acetate from Alpinia Conchigera on Human Cancer Cells
Centre for Natural Product Research and Drug Discovery (CENAR), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Institute of Biological Sciences (Genetics & Molecular Biology), Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Department of Chemical Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Malaysia Terengganu, Mengabang Telipot, 2103, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
Institute of Biological Sciences (Ecology and Biodiversity), Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2010; in revised form: 8 October 2010 / Accepted: 16 October 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
Abstract: 1’-(S)-1’-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff. was investigated for its potential as an anticancer drug. In this communication, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of ACA on five human tumour cell lines. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that ACA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity on all tumour cell lines tested and had no adverse cytotoxic effects on normal cells. Total mortality of the entire tumour cell population was achieved within 30 hrs when treated with ACA at 40.0 µM concentration. Flow cytometric analysis for annexin-V and PI dual staining demonstrated that cell death occurred via apoptosis, followed by secondary necrosis. The apoptotic effects of ACA were confirmed via the DNA fragmentation assay, in which consistent laddering of genomic DNA was observed for all tumour cell lines after a 24 hrs post-treatment period at the IC50 concentration of ACA. A cell cycle analysis using PI staining also demonstrated that ACA induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, corresponding to oral tumour cell lines. In conclusion, ACA exhibits enormous potential for future development as a chemotherapeutic drug against various malignancies.
Keywords: 1’-(S)-1’-acetoxychavicol acetate; Alpinia conchigera; apoptosis; cytotoxicity; cell cycle arrest
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Awang, K.; Nurul Azmi, M.N.; In Lian Aun, L.I.L.; Nazif Aziz, A.N.; Ibrahim, H.; Hasima Nagoor, N. The Apoptotic Effect of 1’S-1’-Acetoxychavicol Acetate from Alpinia Conchigera on Human Cancer Cells. Molecules 2010, 15, 8048-8059.
Awang K, Nurul Azmi MN, In Lian Aun LIL, Nazif Aziz AN, Ibrahim H, Hasima Nagoor N. The Apoptotic Effect of 1’S-1’-Acetoxychavicol Acetate from Alpinia Conchigera on Human Cancer Cells. Molecules. 2010; 15(11):8048-8059.
Awang, Khalijah; Nurul Azmi, Mohamad Nurul; In Lian Aun, Lionel In Lian; Nazif Aziz, Ahmad Nazif; Ibrahim, Halijah; Hasima Nagoor, Noor. 2010. "The Apoptotic Effect of 1’S-1’-Acetoxychavicol Acetate from Alpinia Conchigera on Human Cancer Cells." Molecules 15, no. 11: 8048-8059.