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Lead Contamination in Selected Foods from Riyadh City Market and Estimation of the Daily Intake
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Received: 29 August 2010; in revised form: 7 October 2010 / Accepted: 11 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Abstract: This study was carried out to determine lead contamination in 104 of the representative food items in the Saudi diet and to estimate the dietary lead intake of Saudi Arabians. Three samples of each selected food items were purchased from the local markets of Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Each pooled sample was analyzed in triplicate by ICP-AES after thorough homogenization. Sweets (0.011–0.199 μg/g), vegetables (0.002–0.195 μg/g), legumes (0.014–0.094 μg/g), eggs (0.079 μg/g), meat and meat products (0.013–0.068 μg/g) were the richest sources of lead. Considering the amounts of each food consumed, the major food sources of lead intake for Saudi can be arranged as follows: vegetables (25.4%), cereal and cereal products (24.2%), beverages (9.7%) sweets (8.2%), legumes (7.4%), fruits (5.4%) milk and milk products (5.1%). The daily intake of lead was calculated taking into account the concentration of this element in the edible part of the daily consumption data which were derived from two sources, (a) the KSA food sheet provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and (b) from questionnaires distributed among 300 families in Riyadh city. The results showed that the daily intakes of lead according to the two sources are 22.7 and 24.5 μg/person/day respectively, which are lower than that mentioned by The Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), whereas it is comprabale with that of other countries.
Keywords: lead contamination; food basket samples; lead daily intake
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MDPI and ACS Style
Othman, Z.A.A. Lead Contamination in Selected Foods from Riyadh City Market and Estimation of the Daily Intake. Molecules 2010, 15, 7482-7497.
Othman ZAA. Lead Contamination in Selected Foods from Riyadh City Market and Estimation of the Daily Intake. Molecules. 2010; 15(10):7482-7497.
Othman, Zeid A. Al. 2010. "Lead Contamination in Selected Foods from Riyadh City Market and Estimation of the Daily Intake." Molecules 15, no. 10: 7482-7497.