Molecules 2009, 14(9), 3446-3485; doi:10.3390/molecules14093446
Review

The Vitamin Nicotinamide: Translating Nutrition into Clinical Care

1 Division of Cellular and Molecular Cerebral Ischemia, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA 2 Departments of Neurology and Anatomy & Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA 3 Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA 4 Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA 5 Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2009; in revised form: 8 September 2009 / Accepted: 8 September 2009 / Published: 9 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamins)
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Abstract: Nicotinamide, the amide form of vitamin B3 (niacin), is changed to its mononucleotide compound with the enzyme nicotinic acide/nicotinamide adenylyltransferase, and participates in the cellular energy metabolism that directly impacts normal physiology. However, nicotinamide also influences oxidative stress and modulates multiple pathways tied to both cellular survival and death. During disorders that include immune system dysfunction, diabetes, and aging-related diseases, nicotinamide is a robust cytoprotectant that blocks cellular inflammatory cell activation, early apoptotic phosphatidylserine exposure, and late nuclear DNA degradation. Nicotinamide relies upon unique cellular pathways that involve forkhead transcription factors, sirtuins, protein kinase B (Akt), Bad, caspases, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase that may offer a fine line with determining cellular longevity, cell survival, and unwanted cancer progression. If one is cognizant of the these considerations, it becomes evident that nicotinamide holds great potential for multiple disease entities, but the development of new therapeutic strategies rests heavily upon the elucidation of the novel cellular pathways that nicotinamide closely governs.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; diabetes; erythropoietin; forkhead transcription factors; Wnt

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maiese, K.; Chong, Z.Z.; Hou, J.; Shang, Y.C. The Vitamin Nicotinamide: Translating Nutrition into Clinical Care. Molecules 2009, 14, 3446-3485.

AMA Style

Maiese K, Chong ZZ, Hou J, Shang YC. The Vitamin Nicotinamide: Translating Nutrition into Clinical Care. Molecules. 2009; 14(9):3446-3485.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maiese, Kenneth; Chong, Zhao Z.; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan C. 2009. "The Vitamin Nicotinamide: Translating Nutrition into Clinical Care." Molecules 14, no. 9: 3446-3485.

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