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Molecules 2008, 13(8), 1702-1711; doi:10.3390/molecules13081702
Article

Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Fixed Oils from Berries of Laurus nobilis L. by Supercritical CO2

1
,
2
,
2,* , 3
 and
3
1 Laboratoire de Botanique et de Biologie végétale, Université de Tunis, Tunisia 2 Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, SS 554, Km 4.500, 09042 Cagliari, Italy 3 Dipartimento di Biologia Sperimentale, Sezione di Patologia Sperimentale, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, SS 554, Km 4.500, 09042 Cagliari, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2008 / Revised: 28 July 2008 / Accepted: 5 August 2008 / Published: 13 August 2008
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Abstract

Isolation of volatile and fixed oils from dried berries of Laurus nobilis L. from Tunisia have been obtained by supercritical fractioned extraction with carbon dioxide. Extraction experiments were carried out at a temperature of 40 °C and pressures of 90 and 250 bar. The extraction step performed at 90 bar produced a volatile fraction mainly composed of (E)-β-ocimene (20.9%), 1,8-cineole (8.8%), α-pinene (8.0%), β-longipinene (7.1%), linalool acetate (4.5%), cadinene (4.7%), β-pinene (4.2%), α-terpinyl acetate (3.8%) and α-bulnesene (3.5%). The oil yield in this step of the process was 0.9 % by weight charged. The last extraction step at 250 bar produced an odorless liquid fraction, in which a very small percentage of fragrance compounds was found, whereas triacylglycerols were dominant. The yield of this step was 15.0 % by weight. The most represented fatty acids of the whole berry fixed oil were 12:0 (27.6%), 18:1 n-9 (27.1%), 18:2 n-6 (21.4%), and 16:0 (17,1%), with the 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 unsaturated fatty acids in particular averaging 329 μg/mg of oil.
Keywords: Laurus nobilis L.; essential oil; fixed oil; fatty acids; supercritical extraction; carbon dioxide. Laurus nobilis L.; essential oil; fixed oil; fatty acids; supercritical extraction; carbon dioxide.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Marzouki, H.; Piras, A.; Marongiu, B.; Rosa, A.; Dessì, M.A. Extraction and Separation of Volatile and Fixed Oils from Berries of Laurus nobilis L. by Supercritical CO2. Molecules 2008, 13, 1702-1711.

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