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Entropy 2004, 6(1), 158-179; doi:10.3390/e6010158
Article

A New Thermodynamics from Nuclei to Stars

Received: 30 June 2003; Accepted: 26 December 2003 / Published: 16 March 2004
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Limits to the Second Law of Thermodynamics)
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Abstract: Equilibrium statistics of Hamiltonian systems is correctly described by the microcanonical ensemble. Classically this is the manifold of all points in the N-body phase space with the given total energy. Due to Boltzmann's principle, eS=tr(δ(E-H)), its geometrical size is related to the entropy S(E,N,...). This definition does not invoke any information theory, no thermodynamic limit, no extensivity, and no homogeneity assumption, as are needed in conventional (canonical) thermo-statistics. Therefore, it describes the equilibrium statistics of extensive as well of non-extensive systems. Due to this fact it is the fundamental definition of any classical equilibrium statistics. It can address nuclei and astrophysical objects as well. All kind of phase transitions can be distinguished sharply and uniquely for even small systems. It is further shown that the second law is a natural consequence of the statistical nature of thermodynamics which describes all systems with the same -- redundant -- set of few control parameters simultaneously. It has nothing to do with the thermodynamic limit. It even works in systems which are by far than any thermodynamic "limit".
Keywords: classical thermo-statistics; non-extensive systems classical thermo-statistics; non-extensive systems
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gross, D.H. A New Thermodynamics from Nuclei to Stars. Entropy 2004, 6, 158-179.

AMA Style

Gross DH. A New Thermodynamics from Nuclei to Stars. Entropy. 2004; 6(1):158-179.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gross, Dieter H. 2004. "A New Thermodynamics from Nuclei to Stars." Entropy 6, no. 1: 158-179.


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