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Entropy 2018, 20(6), 449; https://doi.org/10.3390/e20060449

Sample Entropy of the Heart Rate Reflects Properties of the System Organization of Behaviour

1
Institute of Psychology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Neural Bases of Mind Named after V.B. Shvyrkov, 129366 Moscow, Russia
2
Department of Psychophysiology, National Research University Nizhny Novgorod State University Named after N.I. Lobachevsky, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
3
Computer Science Department, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 603014 Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
4
Department of Psychology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, 101000 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2018 / Revised: 4 June 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 8 June 2018
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Abstract

Cardiac activity is involved in the processes of organization of goal-directed behaviour. Each behavioural act is aimed at achieving an adaptive outcome and it is subserved by the actualization of functional systems consisting of elements distributed across the brain and the rest of the body. This paper proposes a system-evolutionary view on the activity of the heart and its variability. We have compared the irregularity of the heart rate, as measured by sample entropy (SampEn), in behaviours that are subserved by functional systems formed at different stages of individual development, which implement organism-environment interactions with different degrees of differentiation. The results have shown that SampEn of the heart rate was higher during performing tasks that included later acquired knowledge (foreign language vs. native language; mathematical vocabulary vs. general vocabulary) and decreased in the stress and alcohol conditions, as well as at the beginning of learning. These results are in line with the hypothesis that irregularity of the heart rate reflects the properties of a set of functional systems subserving current behaviour, with higher irregularity corresponding to later acquired and more complex behaviour. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart rate variability; irregularity; sample entropy; functional systems; individual development; stress; alcohol administration; learning heart rate variability; irregularity; sample entropy; functional systems; individual development; stress; alcohol administration; learning
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Bakhchina, A.V.; Arutyunova, K.R.; Sozinov, A.A.; Demidovsky, A.V.; Alexandrov, Y.I. Sample Entropy of the Heart Rate Reflects Properties of the System Organization of Behaviour. Entropy 2018, 20, 449.

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