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Entropy 2018, 20(2), 119; doi:10.3390/e20020119

Exergy Analysis of the Musculoskeletal System Efficiency during Aerobic and Anaerobic Activities

1
School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, Brazil
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centro Universitário da FEI, 09850-901 São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil
3
Sports Medicine Group of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, University of São Paulo Medical School, 01246-000 São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 11 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Availability and Exergy Analysis)
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Abstract

The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to the human body in order to evaluate the quality of the energy conversion during muscle activity. Such an implementation represents an important issue in the exergy analysis of the body, because there is a difficulty in the literature in evaluating the performed power in some activities. Hence, to have the performed work as an input in the exergy model, two types of exercises were evaluated: weight lifting and aerobic exercise on a stationary bicycle. To this aim, we performed a study of the aerobic and anaerobic reactions in the muscle cells, aiming at predicting the metabolic efficiency and muscle efficiency during exercises. Physiological data such as oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, skin and internal temperatures and performed power were measured. Results indicated that the exergy efficiency was around 4% in the weight lifting, whereas it could reach values as high as 30% for aerobic exercises. It has been shown that the stationary bicycle is a more adequate test for first correlations between exergy and performance indices. View Full-Text
Keywords: exergy analysis; human body; physical activities; metabolic efficiency; exergy efficiency exergy analysis; human body; physical activities; metabolic efficiency; exergy efficiency
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Spanghero, G.M.; Albuquerque, C.; Lazzaretti Fernandes, T.; Hernandez, A.J.; Keutenedjian Mady, C.E. Exergy Analysis of the Musculoskeletal System Efficiency during Aerobic and Anaerobic Activities. Entropy 2018, 20, 119.

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