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Entropy, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2000), Pages 1-69

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Research

Open AccessArticle Emergence and Dissolvence in the Self-organisation of Complex Systems
Entropy 2000, 2(1), 1-25; doi:10.3390/e2010001
Received: 21 November 1999 / Accepted: 28 January 2000 / Published: 4 February 2000
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (138 KB)
Abstract
The formation of complex systems is accompanied by the emergence of properties that are non-existent in the components. But what of the properties and behaviour of such components caught up in the formation of a system of a higher level of complexity? [...] Read more.
The formation of complex systems is accompanied by the emergence of properties that are non-existent in the components. But what of the properties and behaviour of such components caught up in the formation of a system of a higher level of complexity? In this assay, we use a large variety of examples, from molecules to organisms and beyond, to show that systems merging into a complex system of higher order experience constraints with a partial loss of choice, options and independence. In other words, emergence in a complex system often implies reduction in the number of probable states of its components, a phenomenon we term dissolvence. This is seen in atoms when they merge to form molecules, in biomolecules when they form macromolecules such as proteins, and in macromolecules when they form aggregates such as molecular machines or membranes. At higher biological levels, dissolvence occurs for example in components of cells (e.g. organelles), tissues (cells), organs (tissues), organisms (organs) and societies (individuals). Far from being a destruction, dissolvence is understood here as a creative process in which information is generated to fuel the process of self-organisation of complex systems, allowing them to appear and evolve to higher states of organisation and emergence. Questions are raised about the relationship of dissolvence and adaptability; the interrelation with top-down causation; the reversibility of dissolvence; and the connection between dissolvence and anticipation. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Spacetime Foam Approach to the Schwarzschild-de Sitter Entropy
Entropy 2000, 2(1), 26-38; doi:10.3390/e2010026
Received: 21 December 1999 / Accepted: 22 February 2000 / Published: 15 March 2000
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (170 KB)
Abstract
The entropy for a black hole in a de Sitter space is approached within the framework of spacetime foam. A simple model made by N wormholes in a semiclassical approximation, is taken under examination to compute the entropy for such a case. [...] Read more.
The entropy for a black hole in a de Sitter space is approached within the framework of spacetime foam. A simple model made by N wormholes in a semiclassical approximation, is taken under examination to compute the entropy for such a case. An extension to the extreme case when the black hole and cosmological horizons are equal is discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Holography, Quantum Geometry, and Quantum Information Theory
Entropy 2000, 2(1), 39-69; doi:10.3390/e2010039
Received: 1 November 1999 / Accepted: 23 March 2000 / Published: 24 March 2000
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (112 KB)
Abstract
We interpret the Holographic Conjecture in terms of quantum bits (qubits). N-qubit states are associated with surfaces that are punctured in N points by spin networks' edges labelled by the spin-½ representation of SU(2), which are in a superposed quantum state [...] Read more.
We interpret the Holographic Conjecture in terms of quantum bits (qubits). N-qubit states are associated with surfaces that are punctured in N points by spin networks' edges labelled by the spin-½ representation of SU(2), which are in a superposed quantum state of spin "up" and spin "down". The formalism is applied in particular to de Sitter horizons, and leads to a picture of the early inflationary universe in terms of quantum computation. A discrete micro-causality emerges, where the time parameter is being defined by the discrete increase of entropy. Then, the model is analysed in the framework of the theory of presheaves (varying sets on a causal set) and we get a quantum history. A (bosonic) Fock space of the whole history is considered. The Fock space wavefunction, which resembles a Bose-Einstein condensate, undergoes decoherence at the end of inflation. This fact seems to be responsible for the rather low entropy of our universe. Full article

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