Next Article in Journal
When Is an Area Law Not an Area Law?
Next Article in Special Issue
Nonlinear Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a Carnot Engine Cycle
Previous Article in Journal
Generalisations of Fisher Matrices
Previous Article in Special Issue
Entropic Measure of Time, and Gas Expansion in Vacuum
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2016, 18(7), 237;

Thermodynamic Analysis of Resources Used in Thermal Spray Processes: Energy and Exergy Methods

Graduate School of Excellence Advanced Manufacturing Engineering (GSaME), University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
Institute for Manufacturing Technologies of Ceramic Components and Composites, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin H. Knuth
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 12 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 24 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Second Law of Thermodynamics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1230 KB, uploaded 24 June 2016]   |  


In manufacturing, thermal spray technology encompasses a group of coating processes that provide functional surfaces to improve the performance of the components and protect them from corrosion, wear, heat and other failings. Many types and forms of feedstock can be thermal sprayed, and each requires different process conditions and life cycle preparations. The required thermal energy is generated by a chemical (combustion) or electrical (plasma/or arc) energy source. Due to high inefficiencies associated with energy and material consumption in this process, a comprehensive resources used analysis for a sustainable improvement has always been promising. This study aims to identify and compare the influence of using different forms of feedstock (powder, suspension) as well as energy sources (combustion, plasma) on efficiency and effectiveness of energy conversion and resources consumption for different thermal spray processes based on energy and exergy analysis. Exergy destruction ratio and effectiveness efficiency are used to evaluate the energy conversion efficiency. The degree of perfection and degree of energy ratio are applied to account for the intensity of resources consumption (energy or material) in thermal spray processes. It is indicated that high velocity suspension flame spray has the lowest effectiveness efficiency and the highest exergy destruction compared to other thermal spray processes. For resource accounting purposes, in general, suspension thermal spray showed the lower degree of perfection and accordingly the higher inefficiency of resources used compared to powder thermal spray. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy; exergy; effectiveness efficiency; thermal spray; resources energy; exergy; effectiveness efficiency; thermal spray; resources

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Taheri, K.; Elhoriny, M.; Plachetta, M.; Gadow, R. Thermodynamic Analysis of Resources Used in Thermal Spray Processes: Energy and Exergy Methods. Entropy 2016, 18, 237.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top