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Entropy 2016, 18(5), 162; doi:10.3390/e18050162

From Steam Engines to Chemical Reactions: Gibbs’ Contribution to the Extension of the Second Law

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, Via Giuria 7, Torino I-10125, Italy
2
Independent researcher, Viale delle acacie 12, I-10148, Vinovo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Milivoje M. Kostic
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 19 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exploring the Second Law of Thermodynamics)
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Abstract

The present work analyzes the foundations of Gibbs’ thermodynamic equilibrium theory, with the general aim of understanding how the Second Law—as formulated by Clausius in 1865—has been embodied into Gibbs’ formal system and extended to processes involving chemical reactions. We show that Gibbs’ principle of maximal entropy (and minimal energy) is the implicit expression of Clausius’ Second Law. In addition, by making explicit some implicit passages of Gibbs logical path, we provide an original formal justification of Gibbs’ principle. Finally we provide an analysis of how Gibbs’ principle—conceived for homogeneous isolated systems with fixed chemical composition—has come to be applied to systems entailing chemical transformations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Gibbs; Second Law; chemical equilibrium; potential; thermodynamic surface; fundamental equations Gibbs; Second Law; chemical equilibrium; potential; thermodynamic surface; fundamental equations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pellegrino, E.M.; Cerruti, L.; Ghibaudi, E. From Steam Engines to Chemical Reactions: Gibbs’ Contribution to the Extension of the Second Law. Entropy 2016, 18, 162.

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