Gravitational Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
AbstractThe spontaneous violation of Lorentz and diffeomorphism invariance in a phase near the big bang lowers the entropy, allowing for an arrow of time and the second law of thermodynamics. The spontaneous symmetry breaking leads to O(3,1) → O(3) × R , where O(3) is the rotational symmetry of the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker spacetime. The Weyl curvature tensor Cμνρσ vanishes in the FLRW spacetime satisfying the Penrose zero Weyl curvature conjecture. The requirement of a measure of gravitational entropy is discussed. The vacuum expectation value 〈0|ψμ|0〉 ≠ 0 for a vector field ψμ acts as an order parameter and at the critical temperature Tc a phase transition occurs breaking the Lorentz symmetry spontaneously. During the ordered O(3) symmetry phase the entropy is vanishingly small and for T < Tc as the universe expands the anti-restored O(3,1) Lorentz symmetry leads to a disordered phase and a large increase in entropy creating the arrow of time. View Full-Text
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Moffat, J.W. Gravitational Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Entropy 2015, 17, 8341-8345.
Moffat JW. Gravitational Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Entropy. 2015; 17(12):8341-8345.Chicago/Turabian Style
Moffat, John W. 2015. "Gravitational Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics." Entropy 17, no. 12: 8341-8345.