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Entropy 2015, 17(10), 7052-7075; doi:10.3390/e17107052

Extended Thermodynamics for Dense Gases up to Whatever Order and with Only Some Symmetries

Dipartimento di Matematica ed Informatica, Università di Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, 09124 Cagliari, Italy
Department of Physics, University of Yaoundé I, PO Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin Knuth
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 9 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 October 2015 / Published: 16 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Thermodynamics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [282 KB, uploaded 28 October 2015]


Extended Thermodynamics of dense gases is characterized by two hierarchies of field equations, which allow one to overcome some restrictions on the generality of the previous models. This idea has been introduced by Arima, Taniguchi, Ruggeri and Sugiyama. In the case of a 14-moment model, they have found the closure of the balance equations up to second order with respect to equilibrium. Here, the closure is obtained up to whatever order and imposing only the necessary symmetry conditions. It comes out that the first non-symmetric parts of the higher order fluxes appear only at third order with respect to equilibrium, even if Arima, Taniguchi, Ruggeri and Sugiyama found a non-symmetric part proportional to an arbitrary constant also at first order with respect to equilibrium. Consequently, this constant must be zero, as Arima, Taniguchi, Ruggeri and Sugiyama assumed in the applications and on an intuitive ground. View Full-Text
Keywords: extended thermodynamics; dense gas; moments equations extended thermodynamics; dense gas; moments equations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Carrisi, M.C.; Tchame, R.E.; Obounou, M.; Pennisi, S. Extended Thermodynamics for Dense Gases up to Whatever Order and with Only Some Symmetries. Entropy 2015, 17, 7052-7075.

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