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Entropy, Volume 13, Issue 9 (September 2011), Pages 1541-1745

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Research

Open AccessArticle Phase-Controlled Atom-Photon Entanglement in a Three-Level V-Type Atomic System via Spontaneously Generated Coherence
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1541-1554; doi:10.3390/e13091541
Received: 20 May 2011 / Revised: 4 July 2011 / Accepted: 6 July 2011 / Published: 25 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigate the dynamical behavior of the atom-photon entanglement in a V-type three-level quantum system using the atomic reduced entropy. It is shown that an atom and photons are entangled at the steady-state; however disentanglement can also be achieved in an special [...] Read more.
We investigate the dynamical behavior of the atom-photon entanglement in a V-type three-level quantum system using the atomic reduced entropy. It is shown that an atom and photons are entangled at the steady-state; however disentanglement can also be achieved in an special condition. It is demonstrated that in the presence of quantum interference induced by spontaneous emission, the reduced entropy and the atom-photon entanglement are phase-dependent. A non-stationary solution is also obtained when the quantum interference due to the spontaneous emission is completely included. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spectral Entropy in a Boundary-Layer Flow
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1555-1583; doi:10.3390/e13091555
Received: 15 July 2011 / Revised: 20 August 2011 / Accepted: 23 August 2011 / Published: 26 August 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article presents a comparison of the entropy production in a laminar and transitional boundary layer flow with the spectral entropy produced in a region of instability induced by an imposed periodic disturbance. The objective of the study is exploratory in nature [...] Read more.
This article presents a comparison of the entropy production in a laminar and transitional boundary layer flow with the spectral entropy produced in a region of instability induced by an imposed periodic disturbance. The objective of the study is exploratory in nature by computing a boundary-layer environment with well-established computer techniques and comparing the predictions of the maximum rate of entropy production in the wall shear layer with the deterministic prediction of the spectral entropy growth within an inceptive instability in the inner region of the upstream boundary-layer flow. The deterministic values of the spectral entropy within the instability are brought into agreement with the computed rate of entropy production inversely along the shear flow with the assumption that the instability is of a span-wise vortex form and that the spectral entropy components are transported into the wall shear layer by vortex down sweep and are processed into thermodynamic entropy in the boundary-layer wall region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy Generation Minimization)
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Open AccessArticle Local Stability Analysis of a Thermo-Economic Model of a Chambadal-Novikov-Curzon-Ahlborn Heat Engine
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1584-1594; doi:10.3390/e13091584
Received: 29 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 29 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we present a local stability analysis of the thermo-economic model of an irreversible heat engine working at maximum power conditions. The thermo-economic model is based on the maximization of a benefit function which is defined by the ratio of [...] Read more.
In this work we present a local stability analysis of the thermo-economic model of an irreversible heat engine working at maximum power conditions. The thermo-economic model is based on the maximization of a benefit function which is defined by the ratio of the power output and the total cost involved in the plant’s performance. Our study shows that, after a small perturbation, the system decays exponentially to the steady state determined by two different relaxation times. In particular, we show that the relaxation times are function of the temperature ratio τ = T2/T1 (T1 > T2), the cost function ƒ and the parameter R (a parameter related to the degree of internal irreversibilities). We observe that the stability of the system improves as τ increases whereas for changes in ƒ and R, the stability properties are characterized by a rapid decay along the fast eigendirection as ƒ increases and R decreases. Finally, we discuss our results in the context of energetic properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Thermal Radiation on Entropy Generation Due to Micro-Polar Fluid Flow Along a Wavy Surface
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1595-1610; doi:10.3390/e13091595
Received: 3 August 2011 / Revised: 29 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the effect of thermal radiation on micro-polar fluid flow over a wavy surface is studied. The optically thick limit approximation for the radiation flux is assumed. Prandtl’s transposition theorem is used to stretch the ordinary coordinate system in certain [...] Read more.
In this study, the effect of thermal radiation on micro-polar fluid flow over a wavy surface is studied. The optically thick limit approximation for the radiation flux is assumed. Prandtl’s transposition theorem is used to stretch the ordinary coordinate system in certain directions. The wavy surface can be transferred into a calculable plane coordinate system. The governing equations of micro-polar fluid along a wavy surface are derived from the complete Navier-Stokes equations. A simple transformation is proposed to transform the governing equations into boundary layer equations so they can be solved numerically by the cubic spline collocation method. A modified form for the entropy generation equation is derived. Effects of thermal radiation on the temperature and the vortex viscosity parameter and the effects of the wavy surface on the velocity are all included in the modified entropy generation equation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy Generation in Thermal Systems and Processes)
Open AccessArticle Universal Property of Quantum Gravity implied by Uniqueness Theorem of Bekenstein-Hawking Entropy
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1611-1647; doi:10.3390/e13091611
Received: 22 June 2011 / Revised: 28 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (301 KB)
Abstract
This paper consists of three parts. In the first part, we prove that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the unique expression of black hole entropy. Our proof is constructed in the framework of thermodynamics without any statistical discussion. In the second part, intrinsic [...] Read more.
This paper consists of three parts. In the first part, we prove that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is the unique expression of black hole entropy. Our proof is constructed in the framework of thermodynamics without any statistical discussion. In the second part, intrinsic properties of quantum mechanics are shown, which justify the Boltzmann formula to yield a unique entropy in statistical mechanics. These properties clarify three conditions, one of which is necessary and others are sufficient for the validity of Boltzmann formula. In the third part, by combining the above results, we find a reasonable suggestion from the sufficient conditions that the potential of gravitational interaction among microstates of underlying quantum gravity may not diverge to negative infinity (such as Newtonian gravity) but is bounded below at a finite length scale. In addition to that, from the necessary condition, the interaction has to be repulsive within the finite length scale. The length scale should be Planck size. Thus, quantum gravity may become repulsive at Planck length. Also, a relation of these suggestions with action integral of gravity at semi-classical level is given. These suggestions about quantum gravity are universal in the sense that they are independent of any existing model of quantum gravity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Black Hole Thermodynamics)
Open AccessArticle Wavelet Fisher’s Information Measure of 1=α Signals
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1648-1663; doi:10.3390/e13091648
Received: 6 July 2011 / Revised: 30 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 August 2011 / Published: 6 September 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article defines the concept of wavelet-based Fisher’s information measure (wavelet FIM) and develops a closed-form expression of this measure for 1=f α signals. Wavelet Fisher’s information measure characterizes the complexities associated to 1=α signals and provides a powerful tool for their analysis. Theoretical and experimental studies demonstrate that this quantity is exponentially increasing for α > 1 (non-stationary signals) and almost constant for α < 1 (stationary signals). Potential applications of wavelet FIM are discussed in some detail and its power and robustness for the detection of structural breaks in the mean embedded in stationary fractional Gaussian noise signals studied. Full article
Open AccessArticle Relativistic Statistical Mechanics vs. Relativistic Thermodynamics
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1664-1693; doi:10.3390/e13091664
Received: 30 June 2011 / Revised: 16 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on a covariant theory of equilibrium Thermodynamics, a Statistical Relativistic Mechanics is developed for the non-interacting case. Relativistic Thermodynamics and Jüttner Relativistic Distribution Function in a moving frame are obtained by using this covariant theory. A proposal for a Relativistic Statistical [...] Read more.
Based on a covariant theory of equilibrium Thermodynamics, a Statistical Relativistic Mechanics is developed for the non-interacting case. Relativistic Thermodynamics and Jüttner Relativistic Distribution Function in a moving frame are obtained by using this covariant theory. A proposal for a Relativistic Statistical Mechanics is exposed for the interacting case. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tsallis Mutual Information for Document Classification
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1694-1707; doi:10.3390/e13091694
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 5 September 2011 / Accepted: 8 September 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mutual information is one of the mostly used measures for evaluating image similarity. In this paper, we investigate the application of three different Tsallis-based generalizations of mutual information to analyze the similarity between scanned documents. These three generalizations derive from the Kullback–Leibler distance, the difference between [...] Read more.
Mutual information is one of the mostly used measures for evaluating image similarity. In this paper, we investigate the application of three different Tsallis-based generalizations of mutual information to analyze the similarity between scanned documents. These three generalizations derive from the Kullback–Leibler distance, the difference between entropy and conditional entropy, and the Jensen–Tsallis divergence, respectively. In addition, the ratio between these measures and the Tsallis joint entropy is analyzed. The performance of all these measures is studied for different entropic indexes in the context of document classification and registration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsallis Entropy)
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Open AccessArticle An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Random Processing Times
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1708-1729; doi:10.3390/e13091708
Received: 13 July 2011 / Revised: 9 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (891 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the influence of unpredictable random events, the processing time of each operation should be treated as random variables if we aim at a robust production schedule. However, compared with the extensive research on the deterministic model, the stochastic job shop [...] Read more.
Due to the influence of unpredictable random events, the processing time of each operation should be treated as random variables if we aim at a robust production schedule. However, compared with the extensive research on the deterministic model, the stochastic job shop scheduling problem (SJSSP) has not received sufficient attention. In this paper, we propose an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for SJSSP with the objective of minimizing the maximum lateness (which is an index of service quality). First, we propose a performance estimate for preliminary screening of the candidate solutions. Then, the K-armed bandit model is utilized for reducing the computational burden in the exact evaluation (through Monte Carlo simulation) process. Finally, the computational results on different-scale test problems validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. Full article
Open AccessArticle Blind Deconvolution of Seismic Data Using f-Divergences
Entropy 2011, 13(9), 1730-1745; doi:10.3390/e13091730
Received: 15 August 2011 / Revised: 10 September 2011 / Accepted: 14 September 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a new approach to the seismic blind deconvolution problem in the case of band-limited seismic data characterized by low dominant frequency and short data records, based on Csiszár’s f-divergence. In order to model the probability density function of the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new approach to the seismic blind deconvolution problem in the case of band-limited seismic data characterized by low dominant frequency and short data records, based on Csiszár’s f-divergence. In order to model the probability density function of the deconvolved data, and obtain the closed form formula of Csiszár’s f-divergence, mixture Jones’ family of distributions (MJ) is introduced, by which a new criterion for blind deconvolution is constructed. By applying Neidell’s wavelet model to the inverse filter, we then make the optimization program for multivariate reduce to univariate case. Examples are provided showing the good performance of the method, even in low SNR situations. Full article

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