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Spacetime Foam: From Entropy and Holography to Infinite Statistics and Nonlocality
Institute of Field Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Received: 25 March 2008; in revised form: 9 October 2008 / Accepted: 10 October 2008 / Published: 14 October 2008
Abstract: Due to quantum fluctuations, spacetime is foamy on small scales. The degree of foaminess is found to be consistent with holography, a principle prefigured in the physics of black hole entropy. It has bearing on the ultimate accuracies of clocks and measurements and the physics of quantum computation. Consistent with existing archived data on active galactic nuclei from the Hubble Space Telescope, the application of the holographic spacetime foam model to cosmology requires the existence of dark energy which, we argue, is composed of an enormous number of inert “particles” of extremely long wavelength. We suggest that these “particles” obey infinite statistics in which all representations of the particle permutation group can occur, and that the nonlocality present in systems obeying infinite statistics may be related to the nonlocality present in holographic theories. We also propose to detect spacetime foam by looking for halos in the images of distant quasars, and argue that it does not modify the GZK cutoff in the ultra-high energy cosmic ray spectrum and its contributions to time-offlight differences of high energy gamma rays from distant GRB are too small to be detectable.
Keywords: spacetime foam; quantum foam; holography; dark energy; infinite statistics; nonlocality
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ng, Y.J. Spacetime Foam: From Entropy and Holography to Infinite Statistics and Nonlocality. Entropy 2008, 10, 441-461.
Ng YJ. Spacetime Foam: From Entropy and Holography to Infinite Statistics and Nonlocality. Entropy. 2008; 10(4):441-461.
Ng, Y. Jack. 2008. "Spacetime Foam: From Entropy and Holography to Infinite Statistics and Nonlocality." Entropy 10, no. 4: 441-461.