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Medicina 2018, 54(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040051

Topical Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Citrullus colocynthis Extract Cream in Rats

1
Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran
3
Faculty Member of Production Technology Research Institute, Jahad Deneshgahi, Ahvaz, Iran
4
Toxicology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
5
Department of Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
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Abstract

Background and objectives:Citrullus colocynthis (CC), known as bitter apple, is used to treat diabetes in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of CC cream in rats. Materials and Methods: The carrageenan-induced edema in a rat hind paw was carried out to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory effect of the CC fruit extract cream (2–8%) and the tissue levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were estimated by using a commercial ELISA kit. The topical antinociceptive activity of CC cream (2–8%) was evaluated in the rat formalin test. To determine the role of opioid receptors in the local antinociceptive effect of the CC cream, naloxone (20 μg/paw, i.pl.), a non-selective opioid antagonist, was used. Results: The results showed that the CC cream (2–8%) dose-dependently reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema and reversed the changes in the level of TNF-α and IL-6 due to carrageenan-induced edema (p < 0.01). The anti-inflammatory effect of CC cream 8% was comparable to that of hydrocortisone ointment 1%. Furthermore, the application of CC cream (2–8%) dose-dependently inhibited both first and second phases of the formalin test (p < 0.05). The antinociceptive effect of the CC cream (8%) was comparable to that of methyl salicylate cream 30%. Moreover, the administration of naloxone significantly reversed the topical antinociceptive effect of the CC cream (p < 0.05). Conclusions: For the first time, this study indicated that the topical application of CC cream possesses significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in animal models, which were probably mediated by opioid receptors and the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6). Thus, the CC cream can be used to treat inflammatory pain and inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrullus colocynthis; cream; antinociceptive; anti-inflammatory; rat Citrullus colocynthis; cream; antinociceptive; anti-inflammatory; rat
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Pashmforosh, M.; Rajabi Vardanjani, H.; Rajabi Vardanjani, H.; Pashmforosh, M.; Khodayar, M.J. Topical Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Citrullus colocynthis Extract Cream in Rats. Medicina 2018, 54, 51.

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