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Medicina 2018, 54(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54020027

Parasitic Infections Associated with Unfavourable Outcomes in Transplant Recipients

1
Department of Occupational, Metabolic and Internal Diseases, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Gdansk, 80–210 Gdansk, Poland
2
Department of Tropical and Parasitic Diseases, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 81–519 Gdynia, Poland
3
Department of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Gdansk, 80–210 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 21 April 2018 / Accepted: 27 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
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Abstract

Introduction. The immunosuppression used after transplantation (Tx) is associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. In Europe, parasitic infections after Tx are much less common than viral, bacterial and fungal ones. However, diseases caused by parasites are very common in tropical countries. In the last years the number of travellers with immunosuppression visiting tropical countries has increased. Methods. We performed a literature review to evaluate a risk of parasitic infections after Tx in Europe. Results. There is a real risk of parasitic infection in patients after Tx travelling to tropical countries. Malaria, leishmaniasis, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis are the most dangerous and relatively common. Although the incidence of these tropical infections after Tx has not increased, the course of disease could be fatal. There are also some cosmopolitan parasitic infections dangerous for patients after Tx. The greatest threat in Europe is toxoplasmosis, especially in heart and bone marrow recipients. The most severe manifestations of toxoplasmosis are myocarditis, encephalitis and disseminated disease. Diarrhoea is one of the most common symptoms of parasitic infection. In Europe the most prevalent pathogens causing diarrhoea are Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium. Conclusions. Solid organ and bone marrow transplantations, blood transfusions and immunosuppressive treatment are associated with a small but real risk of parasitic infections in European citizens. In patients with severe parasitic infection, i.e., those with lung or brain involvement or a disseminated disease, the progression is very rapid and the prognosis is bad. Establishing a diagnosis before the patient’s death is challenging. View Full-Text
Keywords: infection; immunosuppression; tropics infection; immunosuppression; tropics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Wołyniec, W.; Sulima, M.; Renke, M.; Dębska-Ślizień, A. Parasitic Infections Associated with Unfavourable Outcomes in Transplant Recipients. Medicina 2018, 54, 27.

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