Next Article in Journal
Influences of Genetic Variation of Endothelin-1 Gene on Effects of 16-Week Combined Exercise on Clinical and Physical Parameters in Middle-Aged Women
Previous Article in Journal
New Insights Into Pathophysiological Mechanisms Regulating Conventional Aqueous Humor Outflow
Article Menu
Issue 2 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Medicina 2018, 54(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54020023

Typhoid Fever Diagnosis in Endemic Countries: A Clog in the Wheel of Progress?

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, P.M.B. 1157 Kalgo, Kebbi State, Nigeria
2
Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu 400241, Nigeria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [348 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]

Abstract

Typhoid fever causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries, with inaccurate estimates in some countries affected, especially those situated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Disease burden assessment is limited by lack of a high degree of sensitivity and specificity by many current rapid diagnostic tests. Some of the new technologies, such as PCR and proteomics, may also be useful but are difficult for low-resource settings to apply as point-of-care diagnostics. Weak laboratory surveillance systems may also contribute to the spread of multidrug resistant Salmonella serovar Typhi across endemic areas. In addition, most typhoid-endemic countries employ serological tests that have low sensitivity and specificity making diagnosis unreliable. Here we review currently available typhoid fever diagnostics, and advances in serodiagnosis of S. Typhi. View Full-Text
Keywords: Typhoid fever; S. Typhi; serodiagnosis; multidrug resistance; laboratory Typhoid fever; S. Typhi; serodiagnosis; multidrug resistance; laboratory
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ajibola, O.; Mshelia, M.B.; Gulumbe, B.H.; Eze, A.A. Typhoid Fever Diagnosis in Endemic Countries: A Clog in the Wheel of Progress? Medicina 2018, 54, 23.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Medicina EISSN 1010-660X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top